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Spelling Rules

Final Consonant

Rule 1 – One – Syllable:  ऐसे शब्‍द जिनका अंत single vowel + single consonant से हो ,  यदि vowel से शुरू होने वाला suffix आये तो consonant double हो जाता हैं। 

Example – Beg + ed = begged

Swim + ing = swimming

Rule 2 – दो या तीन syllable वाले शब्‍द जिनका अंत single vowel + single consonant से हो, में यदि last syllable पर जोर दिया जाए तो consonant double हो जाता है। 

Example – admit + ed = admitted

Occur + ing = occurring

Rule 3 – ‘L’ से अन्‍त होने वाले शब्‍दो में यदि ‘L’ से पहले Single vowel हो तो vowel से शुरू होने वाले suffix का प्रयोग होने पर ‘L’ double हो जाता है। 

Example – cancel + ed = cancelled

Singal + ing = singalling

Rule 4 यदि किसी शब्‍द में suffix ‘full’ का प्रयोग किया जाए तो एक ‘L’ हटा दिया जाता है।

Example – power + full = powerful

Care + full = careful

Rule 5 – यदि शब्‍द के अन्‍त में भी ‘LL’ हो तो उसमें से भी एक ‘L’ हटा देते हैं।

Example – will + full = willful

Skill + full = skillful

Final ‘e’

Rule 6 – यदि silent ‘e’ वाले शब्‍दो के साथ vowel से शुरू होने व suffix का प्रयोग हो तो शब्‍द से ‘e’ हटा देते हैं।

Example – live + ing = living

Hope + ed = hoped

Rule 7 यदि silent ‘e’ वाले शब्‍दो के साथ consonant से शुरू होने वाले suffix का प्रयोग हो तो शब्‍द से ‘e’ नहीं हटता हैं। 

Example – use + full = useful

Grace + full = graceful

Rule 8 – ‘ce’ से अंत होने वाले शब्‍दो के साथ suffix ‘ous’ का प्रयोग होने पर ‘e’ को ‘I’ में बदल देते हैं। 

Example – grace + ous = gracious

Vice + ous = vicous

Malice + ous = malicious

Space + ous = spacious

Rule 9 – ‘EE’ से अंत होने वाले शब्‍दो के साथ suffix का प्रयोग होने पर ‘e’नहीं हटता है।

Rule 10 – ‘ie’ से अंत होने वाले शब्‍दो के साथ ‘ing’ का प्रयोग होने पर ‘ie’ को ‘y’ में बदल देते हैं। 

Example – die + ing = dying

Lie + ing = lying

Rule 11 – ‘y’ से अन्‍त होने वाले शब्‍दो में यदि ‘y’ के पहले consonant हो तो ‘ing’ के अतिरिक्‍त किसी भी suffix के प्रयोग होने पर ‘y’ को ‘I’ में बदल देते हैं। 

Rule 12 – ‘y’ से अंत होने वाले शब्‍दो में यदि ‘y’ से पहले vowel हो तो ‘y’ नहीं बदलता हैं।

Rule 13 किसी शब्‍द में ‘e’ के बाद ‘ei’ तथा अन्‍य किसी अक्षर के बाद सामान्‍यत: ‘ie’ का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं। 

Example – receive       believe

            Conceive        field

अपवाद :

Weird                         protein

Surfeit                         seize 

Exercise

  • (a) Disappear (b) Believe (c) Literature (d) Messenger (e) Temper
  • (a) Extremely (b) Pleasant (c) Credibility (d) Assurance (e) Scorcely
  • (a) Parralel (b) Parrallel (c) Parallel (d) Paralel (e) Parralell
  • (a) Currupt (b) Corrupt (c) Curropt (d) Coruppt (e) Corupt
  • (a) Available (b) Avalable (c) Avelable (d) Availeable (e) Availeble
  • (a) Immense (b) Immence (c) Imense (d) Imence (e) Immens
  • (a) Villian (b) Villain (c) Vilan (d) Vilain (e) Villan
  • (a) Acomodation (b) Accommodation (c) Accomodation (d) Acommodation (e) Accommodation
  • (a) Hyppocrasy (b) Hypocrisy (c) Hypocracy (d) Hypocrecy (e) Hypocrasy
  • (a) Occasion (b) Ocassion (c) Occasion (d) Occasion (e) Ocession
  • (a) Satellite (b) Sattellite (c) Sattelite (d) Satelite (e) Satallite
  • (a) Features (b) Teachers (c) Creatures (d) Observers (e) Feathers
  • (a) Pioneer (b) Lunimous (c) Treatment (d) Emergency (e) Theatre
  • (a) Emotional (b) Empathy (c) Mathamatics (d) Cradle (e) Accurate
  • (a) Remembrence (b) Corollary (c) Testify (d) Genetic (e) Prescribe

Verb Agreement

 With following adverbials----Generally, usually, ordinarily, normally, always, sometimes, often, daily, every day ,every week/ night/ year ,regularly – frequently, + ( Use Present simple)

– She cooks every night.

– Nisha always does well on tests in Egnlish.

– Often, I take the bus to work.

– Mr. Prabhati lal goes abroad every month

– The girl generally dances at 7 : PM

– A good student learns his lesson regularly

2. Let, had rather, had better, would better, do not, does not, need not, did not, did never + VI form.

– I let the other boys use my skates.

– I had better go home by this time

– Gulabi Devi did not go to college yesterday.

3. Just, Just now, already, recently, lately, ever, yet –– present perfect.

– He has gone from here recently.

– Akshay has taken his lunch just now.

Have you not received my post yet?  

4. yesterday, ago, long ago, last week, last year, last month,  day before, yesterday, one day – (past simple).

– One day I borrowed a book from you.

– Sheela went london last week.

5. With a view to / look forward to + vI ing

– I am looking forward to (get) – your reply.

– I looked forward to (Stand) – first in the class.

6. in / of / for / with / without / before / after – vI ing

– I don’t believe in (overload) – my stomach

                                  |

                         overloading

– I could not live without (help) – the poor.

                                   |

                               Helping

7. Mind / would mind, worth, past, cannot help, could not help + vI ing –

– Would you mind (give) – me a pen –

                             Giving

– I cannot help (do) –– the work –

                         Doing

– Would you mind having a cup of tea?                           

8. Now, at present, at this moment ––(present cont.)

– What are you doing at present time?

9. Verbs-  with -ing form is  used after:

Hate, dislike, avoid, enjoy, finish, spend ––

– I hate walking.

– I hate reading novels.

10. While + verb + ing.

– While working in the garden, I saw a snake.

– While sleeping I dreamt a good dream.

11. In passive voice (V'I)

– All the mangoes could be eaten.

– Your  must be performed very soon.

12. (Each / every, one, only) + 1 or more singular

sub + Singular verb ––

– Each boy and each girl was present there.

– Everybody and girl has been given 200 dollars.

13. Somebody / someone + singular verb ––

Someone has stolen my heart.

14. (anyone, each, every, either, neither, none) + of + plural + sub + singular verb ––

– One of the boys is present there.

– None of them was present there.

15. Population, public, crowd, army , committee, team, government, family, pair, dozen, scenery, knowledge, hundred, thousand, furniture, machinery, information, bread, money, advice, poetry, gallows, ethic, mathematics, physics, news, electronics, dynamics, 2/3 – miles + singular verb – -----

---– Mathematics is a critical subject.

16. (People, spectacles, trousers, scissors, cloths, good, headquarters, vegetables, laws, police, cattle, folk, circumstances, gentry.) + Plural verb –

– Vegetables contain vitamin.

– Her circumstances are not good. 

17. (Who, whose, whom, which, that) follow only their before subject to choose a verb.

– It is I who am your lover.

– It is you who are my beloved.

18. Distance / Money / Time + Singular verb

– Money begets Money ––

19. Arithmetical operations (Singular verb)

– Ten plus ten is twenty ––

– Thirty divided by three is ten.

20. (Now, at this time /  at this moment, at present, day by day, increasingly, rapidly) = present continuous  ––

– Mobile phone users are increasing day by day.

– He is selling now.

21. – (lest ––– should)

– Walk fast lest you should miss the train.

22. Past indefinite tense  + since + past perfect tense ––

– Many years passed since I had seen her last.

23. Beginning of the sentence – Verb + ing

Or to + vI (gerund, infinitive) 

To take drugs leads a man to death.

– Sleeping is necessary to life.

24. Past perfect + before + past  Indefinite –

He had taken  tea before she came

25. Past Indefinite + after + past + perfect

– He took tea after she had come –

26. Uncountable Noun (Water, air, tea, sugar, environment, furniture, kindness, rainfall, reputation, wood, paper, gum, courtesy, earth, bread, smoke, oxygen) + singular verb.

– Water plays a vital role in agriculture.

27.We use ------ No sooner had – than,

                               Scarcely had –when ,

                              Hardly had – before / when

– No sooner had he seen the police than he ran away.

28.  Use  action 1 with modals (Modals + vI )

– He can do the sum.

It may be  rain today.

29. (If, wish, as if, as though) unreal past = were –

– I wish  If I were a king.

30. If + present  indefinite tense, Future Indefinite tense, or  may / can / shall / will + vI)

– If he runs in the rain, he will catch cold.

31. If + past  perfect tense, sub + might have

Could have / would have + VIII

32. There + is / was / has + singular subject

– There is a temple in our village.

33. There + are / were / have + plural sub –

– There are two ponds in our village.

34. A number of + plural Noun + Plural verb –

– A number of students are going to visit Ajmer.

35. The number of + plural noun + singular verb –

– The number of students is increasing day by day.

– The numbers of days in a week is seven.

36. It is high time / It is time + subject + simple past tense

– It is high time you learnt English.

– It is time we worked hard.

37. Many a + singular noun + singular verb –

– Many a girl is going on an educational tour.

38. Universal truth, Habitual action –

(Present simple) –

– The sun rises in the east.

– The earth moves around the sun.

39. – Double Infinitives, double gerunds, double clauses, Connected ‘and’ use as subject of the sentence.

– Then use plural verb –

– To run and to swim are good exercises.

Running and dancing are good exercises

– What we say and what we do are clear.

40. Use verb singular if little, a little, the little are used as subject ––

   – Little is known about this girl.

--Much been done

41. Some pair words + singular verb ––– (bread and butter, rice and curry, hammer and sickle, slow and steady,  truth and honesty, crown and glory, rise and fall, coming and going, bag and baggage etc)

– Rice and curry is a popular dish.

– Bread and butter is her favorite breakfast.

42. Few, a few, very few, + P.N. / P. Pron + P.v. –

– Very few boys are laborious ] Few of these pens are in order.

Take a look at these sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs.

Radha often –––––– shopping on the weekend.

  • Go
  • Goes
  • Went
  • Is going

My sister ______ as a waitress.

  • Work
  • Works
  • Do working
  • Are working 

I _____ to a great radio show on the way to work.

  • Was listening
  • To listening
  • Will listening
  • Listening 

She ____ living here for 2 years.

  • Has
  • Had
  • Have been
  • Has been 

They ___ on the project at the moment

  • Are working
  • Be working
  • Working
  • Is working 

Do you still ______ to the friends club?

  • Belongs
  • Belong
  • Is belonging
  • Were belonging 

I never _____Rohan  anymore –

  • Seeing
  • Has seen
  • See
  • Seen 

I _____ cricket after work.

  • Playing
  • Am play
  • To play
  • Play 

We ____ a lot of volunteer work.

  • Do
  • Did not
  • Are do
  • Is doing

I like ____ to music when I am tired.

  • Listening
  • Is listening
  • Am listening
  • Were listening

Complete the passage with suitable verbs from the list. Put them in the correct tenses. Use negative where necessary.

One day the great poet was (1) by prince Shyam Yadav to write in honour of the prince. The prince (2) to pay Raj a piece of gold for each verse. Raj finished his writing and it was found (3) seven thousand verses and the prince now did not (4) to pay seven thousand gold coins. He wanted to pay silver coins instead of gold coins. The poet did not (5) silver coins and returned to his village.

1.

  • Offered
  • After
  • Is offers
  • Were offering

2.

  • Promise
  • Promised
  • Did promise
  • Promises

3.

  • Finishing
  • Finished
  • To finish
  • Finishes

4.

  • Able
  • Was able
  • Ables
  • Were able

5.

  • Agree
  • Does agree
  • Have agreed
  • Is agree.
  • Munni (not do) _____ the shopping yet.
  • While I (talk) _____ to her, someone stole my car.
  • This car has stopped (work) _____ twice today.
  •  (leave) ___ why ___ he ___ so early last night.
  • Would you kind (not put) _____ out your cigarettes on the floor? 
  •  Dev (pay) _____ hockey since she was thirteen
  • Sunni started the course last year, but she (no learn) ____. 
  •  I asked if she (lend) _____ me her note book.
  • I had (not better tell) _____ Sarita because she’ll probably get upset. 
  • I (Cannot heard) ______ the speaker because everyone was making so much noise.

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