Rule 1 – One – Syllable: ऐसे शब्द जिनका अंत single vowel + single consonant से हो , यदि vowel से शुरू होने वाला suffix आये तो consonant double हो जाता हैं।
Example – Beg + ed = begged
Swim + ing = swimming
Rule 2 – दो या तीन syllable वाले शब्द जिनका अंत single vowel + single consonant से हो, में यदि last syllable पर जोर दिया जाए तो consonant double हो जाता है।
Example – admit + ed = admitted
Occur + ing = occurring
Rule 3 – ‘L’ से अन्त होने वाले शब्दो में यदि ‘L’ से पहले Single vowel हो तो vowel से शुरू होने वाले suffix का प्रयोग होने पर ‘L’ double हो जाता है।
Example – cancel + ed = cancelled
Singal + ing = singalling
Rule 4 यदि किसी शब्द में suffix ‘full’ का प्रयोग किया जाए तो एक ‘L’ हटा दिया जाता है।
Example – power + full = powerful
Care + full = careful
Rule 5 – यदि शब्द के अन्त में भी ‘LL’ हो तो उसमें से भी एक ‘L’ हटा देते हैं।
Example – will + full = willful
Skill + full = skillful
Rule 6 – यदि silent ‘e’ वाले शब्दो के साथ vowel से शुरू होने व suffix का प्रयोग हो तो शब्द से ‘e’ हटा देते हैं।
Example – live + ing = living
Hope + ed = hoped
Rule 7 यदि silent ‘e’ वाले शब्दो के साथ consonant से शुरू होने वाले suffix का प्रयोग हो तो शब्द से ‘e’ नहीं हटता हैं।
Example – use + full = useful
Grace + full = graceful
Rule 8 – ‘ce’ से अंत होने वाले शब्दो के साथ suffix ‘ous’ का प्रयोग होने पर ‘e’ को ‘I’ में बदल देते हैं।
Example – grace + ous = gracious
Vice + ous = vicous
Malice + ous = malicious
Space + ous = spacious
Rule 9 – ‘EE’ से अंत होने वाले शब्दो के साथ suffix का प्रयोग होने पर ‘e’नहीं हटता है।
Rule 10 – ‘ie’ से अंत होने वाले शब्दो के साथ ‘ing’ का प्रयोग होने पर ‘ie’ को ‘y’ में बदल देते हैं।
Example – die + ing = dying
Lie + ing = lying
Rule 11 – ‘y’ से अन्त होने वाले शब्दो में यदि ‘y’ के पहले consonant हो तो ‘ing’ के अतिरिक्त किसी भी suffix के प्रयोग होने पर ‘y’ को ‘I’ में बदल देते हैं।
Rule 12 – ‘y’ से अंत होने वाले शब्दो में यदि ‘y’ से पहले vowel हो तो ‘y’ नहीं बदलता हैं।
Rule 13 किसी शब्द में ‘e’ के बाद ‘ei’ तथा अन्य किसी अक्षर के बाद सामान्यत: ‘ie’ का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।
Example – receive believe
With following adverbials----Generally, usually, ordinarily, normally, always, sometimes, often, daily, every day ,every week/ night/ year ,regularly – frequently, + ( Use Present simple)
– She cooks every night.
– Nisha always does well on tests in Egnlish.
– Often, I take the bus to work.
– Mr. Prabhati lal goes abroad every month
– The girl generally dances at 7 : PM
– A good student learns his lesson regularly
2. Let, had rather, had better, would better, do not, does not, need not, did not, did never + VI form.
– I let the other boys use my skates.
– I had better go home by this time
– Gulabi Devi did not go to college yesterday.
3. Just, Just now, already, recently, lately, ever, yet –– present perfect.
– He has gone from here recently.
– Akshay has taken his lunch just now.
– Have you not received my post yet?
4. yesterday, ago, long ago, last week, last year, last month, day before, yesterday, one day – (past simple).
– One day I borrowed a book from you.
– Sheela went london last week.
5. With a view to / look forward to + vI ing
– I am looking forward to (get) – your reply.
– I looked forward to (Stand) – first in the class.
6. in / of / for / with / without / before / after – vI ing
– I don’t believe in (overload) – my stomach
– I could not live without (help) – the poor.
7. Mind / would mind, worth, past, cannot help, could not help + vI ing –
– Would you mind (give) – me a pen –
– I cannot help (do) –– the work –
– Would you mind having a cup of tea?
8. Now, at present, at this moment ––(present cont.)
– What are you doing at present time?
9. Verbs- with -ing form is used after:
– Hate, dislike, avoid, enjoy, finish, spend ––
– I hate walking.
– I hate reading novels.
10. While + verb + ing.
– While working in the garden, I saw a snake.
– While sleeping I dreamt a good dream.
11. In passive voice (V'I)
– All the mangoes could be eaten.
– Your must be performed very soon.
12. (Each / every, one, only) + 1 or more singular
sub + Singular verb ––
– Each boy and each girl was present there.
– Everybody and girl has been given 200 dollars.
13. Somebody / someone + singular verb ––
– Someone has stolen my heart.
14. (anyone, each, every, either, neither, none) + of + plural + sub + singular verb ––
– One of the boys is present there.
– None of them was present there.
15. Population, public, crowd, army , committee, team, government, family, pair, dozen, scenery, knowledge, hundred, thousand, furniture, machinery, information, bread, money, advice, poetry, gallows, ethic, mathematics, physics, news, electronics, dynamics, 2/3 – miles + singular verb – -----
---– Mathematics is a critical subject.
16. (People, spectacles, trousers, scissors, cloths, good, headquarters, vegetables, laws, police, cattle, folk, circumstances, gentry.) + Plural verb –
– Vegetables contain vitamin.
– Her circumstances are not good.
17. (Who, whose, whom, which, that) follow only their before subject to choose a verb.
– It is I who am your lover.
– It is you who are my beloved.
18. Distance / Money / Time + Singular verb
– Money begets Money ––
19. Arithmetical operations (Singular verb)
– Ten plus ten is twenty ––
– Thirty divided by three is ten.
20. (Now, at this time / at this moment, at present, day by day, increasingly, rapidly) = present continuous ––
– Mobile phone users are increasing day by day.
– He is selling now.
21. – (lest ––– should)
– Walk fast lest you should miss the train.
22. Past indefinite tense + since + past perfect tense ––
– Many years passed since I had seen her last.
23. Beginning of the sentence – Verb + ing
Or to + vI (gerund, infinitive)
– To take drugs leads a man to death.
– Sleeping is necessary to life.
24. Past perfect + before + past Indefinite –
He had taken tea before she came
25. Past Indefinite + after + past + perfect
– He took tea after she had come –
26. Uncountable Noun (Water, air, tea, sugar, environment, furniture, kindness, rainfall, reputation, wood, paper, gum, courtesy, earth, bread, smoke, oxygen) + singular verb.
– Water plays a vital role in agriculture.
27.We use ------ No sooner had – than,
Scarcely had –when ,
Hardly had – before / when
– No sooner had he seen the police than he ran away.
28. Use action 1 with modals (Modals + vI )
– He can do the sum.
It may be rain today.
29. (If, wish, as if, as though) unreal past = were –
– I wish If I were a king.
30. If + present indefinite tense, Future Indefinite tense, or may / can / shall / will + vI)
– If he runs in the rain, he will catch cold.
31. If + past perfect tense, sub + might have
Could have / would have + VIII
32. There + is / was / has + singular subject
– There is a temple in our village.
33. There + are / were / have + plural sub –
– There are two ponds in our village.
34. A number of + plural Noun + Plural verb –
– A number of students are going to visit Ajmer.
35. The number of + plural noun + singular verb –
– The number of students is increasing day by day.
– The numbers of days in a week is seven.
36. It is high time / It is time + subject + simple past tense
– It is high time you learnt English.
– It is time we worked hard.
37. Many a + singular noun + singular verb –
– Many a girl is going on an educational tour.
38. Universal truth, Habitual action –
(Present simple) –
– The sun rises in the east.
– The earth moves around the sun.
39. – Double Infinitives, double gerunds, double clauses, Connected ‘and’ use as subject of the sentence.
– Then use plural verb –
– To run and to swim are good exercises.
– Running and dancing are good exercises
– What we say and what we do are clear.
40. Use verb singular if little, a little, the little are used as subject ––
– Little is known about this girl.
--Much been done
41. Some pair words + singular verb ––– (bread and butter, rice and curry, hammer and sickle, slow and steady, truth and honesty, crown and glory, rise and fall, coming and going, bag and baggage etc)
– Rice and curry is a popular dish.
– Bread and butter is her favorite breakfast.
42. Few, a few, very few, + P.N. / P. Pron + P.v. –
– Very few boys are laborious ] Few of these pens are in order.
Take a look at these sentences and complete them with the correct form of the verbs.
Radha often –––––– shopping on the weekend.
My sister ______ as a waitress.
I _____ to a great radio show on the way to work.
She ____ living here for 2 years.
They ___ on the project at the moment
Do you still ______ to the friends club?
I never _____Rohan anymore –
I _____ cricket after work.
We ____ a lot of volunteer work.
I like ____ to music when I am tired.
Complete the passage with suitable verbs from the list. Put them in the correct tenses. Use negative where necessary.
One day the great poet was (1) by prince Shyam Yadav to write in honour of the prince. The prince (2) to pay Raj a piece of gold for each verse. Raj finished his writing and it was found (3) seven thousand verses and the prince now did not (4) to pay seven thousand gold coins. He wanted to pay silver coins instead of gold coins. The poet did not (5) silver coins and returned to his village.