Spotting Errors

A to Z English Vocabulary

A to Z English Vocabulary Words With Meaning in Hindi | Part A-I

A to Z English Vocabulary Words With Meaning in Hindi | Part A-I

daily english capsule 11nove sept 2016

Daily english capsule 11nove sept 2016

A to Z English Vocabulary Words With Meaning in Hindi | Part A-II

A to Z English Vocabulary Words With Meaning in Hindi | Part A-II

Syntax

  • The arrangement of words and phrase to create well-formed sentence in a language.
  • The structure of statements in a computer language.

Linguistics –

The study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language.

     – late 16th century: From French syntaxe, or via late Latin from Greet suntaxis 

                            from sun – ‘together’ + tassein ‘arrange’

  • A set of words that is complete in itself typically containing a subject and predicate, conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command, and consisting of a main clause and some times. One or more subordinate clauses.
  • The punishment assigned to a defendant found guilty by a court, or fixed by law for a particular offence
  • -----Example “He is serving a three-year sentence for fraud.
  • ------Declare to punishment decided for (an offender)

Sentence

– When we speak or write we use words. We generally use these words in groups.

A group of words like this, which makes complete sense is called sentence or/– A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete idea.

  • When we make a sentence –
  • We name some person or thing.
  • --- Say something about that person or thing.

  →    Other relevant subjects – ---

(Parts of a sentence)

  • Direct object – A direct object receives the action of the verb. In other words, it is directly affected by it.

In direct object – An Indirect object is the receiver of the direct object and it usually comes just before it.

– Khushboo gave her mother flowers.

– What is directly affected by this action?

Who receives the flowers? – her mother.

The object of the preposition

       ↓

The object of the preposition is a Noun or a pronoun that completes its meaning

Example – Manisha is thinking about.

– This sentence is incomplete. We don’t what is Manisha thinking about.  

So – Manisha is thinking about your idea .

Transitive verbs and Intransitive verbs

– Verbs that take direct objects are called transitive verbs.

The meaning of a transitive verb is incomplete without a direct object.

– Karam is drinking a glass of water.  

  • Verbs that don’t take direct objects are called intransitive verbs.

(the meaning of intransitive verb is complete on its own.

– Sharmila is standing.

Or Sunita and Nisha are standing.

Linking verbs

A linking verb is verb that connects the subject with an adjective or a noun that identifies or describes it.

– Seema seems very satisfied.

Complements

A complement is a word or a group of words (usually an adjective or a noun), that is used after linking verbs (Such as be and become). The complement identifies or describes the subject of the verb.

Rajpal seems very happy.

Subject complement –

(follows a linking verb and Modifies or refers to the subject. It may be noun  or an adjective (also known as a predicate adjective)

– Sanjana is pretty. (The adjective Preety is a subject complement, it describes the subject – Sanjana)

  • Object complement – Follows and modified or refer to a direct object.

–  Shyam considers American television silly. (television is the direct object. Silly describes television, it is the object complement.)

  • Verb complement – this is a direct or indirect object of a verb. It may be a noun, pronoun, or word or word group acting as noun.

– Aunt Gertie gave patty my desert.

(Petty is the indirect object, my desert is the direct object of the verb gave. Both are considered verb complements.)

– Phrases – A group of related words that lacks a subject, or a predicate, or both – and that acts as a single part of speech.

(Prepositional phrase. Noun phrase, verb phrase, verbal phrase) (Infinitive phrase, participial phrase), gerund phrase)

– Clauses – A group of related words containing a subject and a predicate.

(Main (independent), subordinate (dependent).

Drill

– Instructions – Find the subject, verbs, predicate nominatives, and direct objects in the following sentences.

  • It the woods the rain came down in torrents.
  • Suman will be waiting for you at the mail.
  • The reckless driver hit the pig and swerved into another car.
  • The policeman stopped to help and served woman’s life.
  • The men and women stopped and helped the lame horse and its rider.

Part of speech

– Words and phrases can be grouped according to their sentence building functions.

Syntactic classes of words are traditionally called parts of speech. English has the following parts of speech – : verb, Noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, preposition – Conjuction, article, Interjection. 

–––Noun –––

Noun – Plural Noun – Nouns

– late middle English : From Anglo – Norman French,

From Latin nomen ‘Name’

– A noun is a ‘naming’ word

A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.

Classifications of Nouns

A Abstract Noun –- Is usually the name of quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to ----

Which its belongs : – (An abstract noun is a word which names something that you cannot see, hear, touch, smell, or taste.

C  =  Common Noun

– A common noun is a general, ordinary name of a person, place, animal, thing or event.

C = Collective Noun

– A collective noun is the name of a group or collection of similar person, animals, or things.

  • A crowd of people
  • A sheaf of gains
  • A herd of cattle
  • A cluster of stars
  • A nest of ants
  • A bundle of clothes
  • A flock of birds
  • A troupe of dancers
  • A troop of children’s
  • A pile of books
  • A peal of laughter’s
  • A volley of shots
  • A volley of arrows
  • A volley of stones
  • A volley of missiles
  • A ray of light
  • A shoal of fish
  • A stud of horses
  • A league of powers
  • A bunch of keys
  • A bunch of grapes
  •  A budget of news

C = Compound Noun

- Compound nouns are nouns made up of two or more words. Some compound nouns are hyphenated, some are not, and some combine their words to form a single words.

P = A proper noun is a special name of particular person, place, this or event.

M – Raw elements or objects existing in nature called material nouns

– Another classification of nouns is whether they are countable or uncountable –

– Countable – book, pen, apple, boy, doctor –

– uncountable Noun – milk, oil, gold, honesty

Noun Gender

– The noun – gender tells us about the sex of the noun.

Late middle English --

Types of genders of Nouns

–  F  = Feminine gender – -------girl,spinster, queen ....

– M = Masculine gender -------

                – Man, Horse, boy, Lion-----------

N = Neuter Gender  (lifless objects) ---------

C = Common Gender – (either male or female but we are not concerned about it)

– Child, worker, friends, cousin, teacher –

Servant, student, candidate

A list of masculine genders –

M                                           –            

Bachelor                                 –

Bullock                                   –

Drone                                     –

Jew                                        –

Wizard                                   –

Shepherd                               –

Benefactor                             –

Mayor                                   –

Monk                                    –

Duck                                     –

Stag                                       –

Benefactor                             –

Monk                                     –

Swain                                     –

Dair-man                                –

Spokesman                            –

Tutor                                      –

Czar                                       –

Prophet                                  –

Buck                                      –

Steer                                      –

The Noun – Number –

S =Singular  – P = Plural

S – Man, boy, woman, child

P – Men, boys, women, children

–golden  Rules .........

How to form plural from singular

  • By suffixing ‘s’ to the  singular – noun –

–   Joy – Joys – chair – chairs,

Piano – pianos, Momento – Momentos, Radio, Radios,

  • By suffixing ‘es’ to the singular Noun ending in (s, ss, sh, ch, o, x, 2) need an’ es’ at the end to become plural.

– Glass – glasses, Hero – heroes, echo – echoes, Mango – Mangoes, Box – Boxes

Note – However, for some words ending in O, Just add – ‘s’ 

– Cello – cellos,  disco – discos, hairdo – hairdos, logo – logos,

patio – patios, photo – photos, piano – pianos,

  • For some words ending in ‘f’ change the ‘f’ to a ‘v’ and add – es

Half                –

Loaf               –

Elf                   –

Leaf               –

Self                –

Shelf              –

Thief              –

Wolf              –

  • For some nouns ending in – life, change the ‘f’ to a ‘v’ than add – s.

Wife              –

Life               –

Knife            –

Note  – However, for some words ending in ‘F’ just add – S

Chef      –

Cliff        –

Ref         –

Roff       –

  • For common nouns that end with

Consonant + Y, change the Y to an J  and then add – es.

Poppy           –

Penny           –

Fly                  –

Spy                 –

Stay               –

Note –

  • For some nouns, change other letters or just change the word completely !

Person          –

Child              –

Ox                  –

Foot               –

Mouse          –

Louse            –

Man               –

  • And finally, there are nouns that maintain their Latin or Greek form in the plural.

Nucleus        –

Syllabus        –

Focus            –

Fungus         –

Thesis           –

Criterion      –

– A handful of nouns appear to be plural in form but take a singular verb –

– News, , Economics, mathematics, statistics- etc.

  • Some nouns, though singular in form but  always used as plural –

–    cattle, people, vermin –

  • Some nouns do not follow any rules.

–   Mr. Yadav – The Messrs Yadav, Miss Yadav – Misses Yadav ,  Madam – Mesdames,

  • A few nouns have the same singular and plural forms –

Sheep                   –

Species                                 –

Series                    –

Deer                      –

  • A compound noun generally forms its plural by – add – s

Note – Some singular nouns after add – S or

Es – give different meanings –

S                                                   P

Advice                  –             Advices

Good                     –             Goods

Greeting                 –             Greetings

Order                    –             Orders

Particular               –             Particulars

Regard                  –             Regards

Ways                    –             Ways

Number                –             Numbers

Powder                –             Powders

Exercise – 1

 Find out the error part of the following sentences – 

  • The Indian team (A) / defeated (B) / the American (C) / by an inning (D) / No error (E)
  • All the furnitures (A) / have been sent (B) / to the new house (C) / located in a city (D)/ No error (E)
  • Robin Singh (A)/ scored (B) / more than (C) / five thousands runs (D) / No error (E)
  • Mr. Yadav gave me (A) / two important information (B) / I had been waiting for (C) / the previous two months (D)/ No error (E).
  • A student should not (A)/ blindly accept (B) / everything (C) / it finds in a book (D) / No error. (E)
  • There was (A) / a lot of money (B) / in the bank (C) / in Veeru’s and Aman’s joint account (D) / No error (E).
  • I (A) / don’t think (B) / it is your house (C) / it is somebody’s else (D)/ No error (E)
  • My mouth (A) / watered (B) / When I saw (C) / a bouquet of grapes (D) / No error (E).
  • My sister – in – laws (A) / who live in Neemkathana (B) / have come (C) / to stay with us (D) / No error (E).
  • A trained (A) / gang of sailors (B) / was employed (C) / on the ship (D) / No error (E).
  • Lives of great Men teach US how to live nobly.
  • These novels are very interesting.
  • Those girls were reading their book.                                                                          

Exercise – 2

Fill in the blanks with the suitable forms of the noun given in brackets:

  • The earthquake is a natural ________. (phenomenon / phenomena)
  • ______ were given to the poor. (Alm / alms)
  • One should use _____ to protect one’s eyes from the sun. (google / googles)
  • Five ______ eggs are to be bought. (dozen / dozens)
  • This chair is made of ______. (wood/woods)

Exercise – 3

Change the following sentences from singular into plural.

  • A woman loves her husband.
  • A father is kind to a little child.
  • This ox is mine.
  • A wolf is a wild animal.
  • A deer was caught by a hunter.

Exercise – 4

Change the following sentences from the plural into the singular.

  • These workmen have no enemies.
  • Cows have long tails.

Exercise no – 5 

       Fill in the blanks with one of the two verbs given in the brackets. 

  • A pair of birds ______ flying (was / were)
  • Politics ______ a vital role in rural life. (play/plays)
  • These poultry ______ mine. (is/all)
  • The crowd ______ waiting for the chief Minster. (was/war)
  • Good news ______ received by her. (was/were)

Pronoun

From-- the word  pronoun orgin from -- Pro- + nomen = noun

From Latin Pronomen, from Pro – “in place of” + nomen “name, noun

1520 – 30 : < middle French Pronom < Latin Pronomen (stem Pronomin)

– A word that takes the place of a noun.

To improve the impact of the sentence being delivered often the noun is replaced by a word of another part of speech. This word that is used in place of noun is called Pronoun.

Note – A Pronoun is used to replace a noun.

This noun is called the antecedent.

– The prefix “ante” means – before, So for example –

– The police officers rushed into their headquarters.

Types of Pronoun

  P = Personal Pronoun

– Personal Pronoun describes a particular person or thing or group. 

[I, We, You, He, She –

P = Possessive Pronoun – Show who owns something described in a sentence –

– Mine, His, Hers, It, Ours, Yours, Their/Theirs –

– The cat is mine (Possessive Pronoun)

R = Relative Pronouns

– This kind of pronoun links one clause or phrase to another.

– It referes or relates to some noun going before, Which is called its Antecedent.

 – Who, Which, That, Whoever, Whatever

– He will accept whichever project comes first.

– The contestant who gets the highest score wins the million dollar Jackpot.

R – Reciprocal Pronoun

– Since reciprocal relationship is shown in such words, it is called as reciprocal pronoun –

– Each other / one another

R = Reflexive Pronouns

– This kind of pronoun is used to refer back to the subject.

Some of the reflexive pronouns are

Yourself, Myself, Ourselves, Himself, Herself, itself – 

– Monika forgets to send a copy of the email to herself.

I = Interrogative Pronouns –

– As the title implies, the function of this kind of pronoun is to ask questions.

– Who, What, Which, Whom, Whatever, Whichever, Whomever

I = Indefinite Pronouns

– This kind of pronoun refers to unspecified things – some examples are –

– Any, All, another, each, anyone, anything, anybody, nobody, everyone, everybody, someone, few, many, etc.

– Many were called for the interview but only five were hired.

– She’s ready to give up everything for his family’s safety.

I = Impersonal

– Use for time, weather, temperature, distance, etc –

– It is raining

– It is march

– It is morning

D = Distributive Pronoun

– A distributive pronoun considers members of a group separately, rather than collectively.

– Each, either, neither, any, none

Each of the answer is correct.  

Neither of the girls can do it.

– Each of the boys was given a present

D = Demonstrative pronouns –

– The  function of this kind of pronoun is to point to a noun.

Examples are – this, these, that, those, etc.

– Anuradha Said she wanted these.

– That is the car that I’ll buy for my birthday.

E = Emphatic Pronoun (Intensive/Pronouns)

– When reflexive Pronouns are used to put emphasis on a particular noun they are called emphatic pronouns.

– He himself told me this.

– We ourselves witnessed the accident. 

E = Exclamatory Pronoun

– to express an exclamation

– What / Such

– What bad weather to play football in!

Practice Set

Find out the error part of the following sentences:

  • A woman can do (A)/ everything (B) / what a man (C) / can do (D) / No error. (E)
  • He (A)/ bought a house (B)/ the price of which (C)/ was ten lakh rupees (D)/ No error.(E)
  • The only book (A)/ which you have purchased (B)/ today is in (C)/ demand now-a-days (D) / No error. (E)
  • The director ordered (A)/ the teacher to (B) / let the students (C)/ and I go in (D)/ No error (E).
  • Each member (A)/ and each worker (B)/ has given (C)/ their consent (D)/ No error. (E)
  • One can rise in life (A)/ only when one puts forth one’s best (B)/ not only for himself (C)/ and one’s family but also for others (D)/ No error. (E)
  • God helps (A)/ those (B)/ who (C)/ help themselves (D)/ No error.(E)

Quiz

  • Either the classrooms or the auditorium must have ________ floor refinished.

– (Its) / her / Him / theirs

  • Mohini scored in the final two seconds, and the crowd roared ______ approval.

– (Its) – their / theirs / which

  • The voters have chosen ______ and ______ to be their representatives. 

– she – he / her – him

  • At first, I wanted to split the money between Raj and _______ I ended up giving the money to _____.

– me __ myself / I –Myself, You – Myself

Fill in the blank with correct choice out of four alternatives–

  • People ______ live in glass houses  shouldn’t throw stones.

who ___ which ____ that, whom

  • Wo Ladki, _____was written in 2015,by 'Shyam yadav' remains a popular book among romantic and individualistic Indians.

which, who, that, whatever

  • Mamta Prefers to watch movies ______ make her cry.

That, what, who

  • He bought all the books ______ are required for the course.

Whose, which, that, whenever

  • In the crowd were several recruits ______ are regarded as excellent prospects for next year’s team.

who, which, what, that

  • Rampal’s children _______ all post graduated from university, came home for his eightieth birthday.

Who, Whom, that, whose

  • The police were able to find no evidence against her, ______ surprised no one who knows her well.

which

  • She wanted to buy a scarf ______ would complement her blue eyes.

– who, that, whom , wherever

  • The answer, ______ you can find in the back of the book, are sometimes incorrect.

which, who, whom, that

  • Predictably, the students _____ did best were note that ones who stayed up all night studying.

who, which, whom

  • Let we go there –– us
  • Let they play cricket. ––them
  • He is better than me ––  I
  • She runs as fast as them –– they   
  • He was more curious than me to see the dancing girl coming towards us.
  • He depends on they. –– them
  • He play with I. –––– me

Adjective

– A part of  speech that describes a noun or pronoun.

– The simplest definition of an adjective is that it is a word that describes or clarifies a noun.

Adjective describe nouns by giving some information about on object’s size, shape, age, color, origin or material.

Type of Adjectives

P = Possesive Adjectives

– As the name indicates, Possessive adjectives are used to indicate possession. They are -

– My, your, his, her, its, our, their  -etc.

P = Proper Adjectives

– Indian, African, Chinese, Nepalese, Italian, Russian,

Q = Adjectives of quality

– These adjectives describes nouns that refer to action, state or quality.

– Careless, dangerous, excited, white, long, fat, English, cold, green. Mediterranean, three-cornered.-etc.

Q = Adjective of quantity

– – A good deal of, a lot of, plenty of, a part of, half of.

D = Demonstrative adjectives

– A demonstrative adjective shows the noun it modifies is singular or plural and whether the position of the noun is near or far from the person who is speaking or writing. A demonstrative adjectives also points out a fact about the noun.

– This / every / either / neither --etc

I = Interrogative Adjective

– Which, what, whose  ....so on

N = Numeral Adjective

One, two, three, for ------

First, second, third ------

All, some, many, few, most, etc….

E = Exclamatory Adjective

– What

– what a big building it is!

What a big fool.

E = Emphasizing Adjectives –

– He saw his beloved on the road with his own eyes.

Degrees of Comparison

Degrees of comparison refers to adjectives being written in different forms to compare one, two or more nouns which are words describing persons, places and things----------                                         

 P = Positive

– When we speak about only one person or thing we us positive degree.

– This flower is beautiful.

– she is an intelligent girl.

C = Comparative

– When we compare two persons or two things with each other, we use comparative degree –

– This house is bigger than that one. 

S = Superlative

– When we compare more than two persons or thing with one another. 

– This flower is the most beautiful  in this garden.

NOTE-----

 Latin adjectives like----Junior, senior, inferior, superior,  Posterior, prior, Anterior etc-

–  Use – to – place of than –

– Dharma is junior to me ( we use to place of than  because of junior)

2. – Major, exterior, interior, minor

– Positive degree adjective.

– The most major portion (×)

– The major portion ()

3. After as/so – use positive degree

–Anu is as smart as Manu.

– Anu is as smarter as Manu (×)

4. Use positive degree after too –

– Soniya was too weak to walk.

– Neha  was too weaker to walk (×)

5. Comparatively/Relatively takes positive degree –

–Anita is relatively beeter than Rama.

6. The comparative form with r’ or’ er’

In comparative degree is not sued when we compare two qualities in the same person, animal or thing.

– Mr. Dradvid is more fast than skillful.

7. Adjective word such as – chief,Golden, unique, excellent, universal, perfect, round, square, cannot be compared.

Correct use of some adjectives ----

Later, latest – to show time

– Later, last – to show position

The latter chapters of this book are interesting. The last chapter is good.

Less – quality

Fewer – numbers

Anyone – anybody

Any one – whichever

First and fore most – order, foremost – leading

A list of some adjectives

        P                              C                                  S

Good/well       –          better               –          the best

Bad/evil/ill       –          worse               –          the worst 

Much               –          more                –          the most

Little               –          less/lesser         –          the least

Far                   –          farther             –          the farthest

Up                   –          upper               –          the upmost

Out                  –          outer                –          the utmost

Beautiful           –          more beautiful  –          most beautiful

Famous            –          more famous    –          most famous

Honest             –          more honest     –          most honest

Tall                  –          taller                –          tallest

Long                –          longer              –          longest

Fine                 –          finer                 –          finest

Busy                –          busier               –          busiest

Holy                –          holier               –          holiest

                           Practice s

----------Pick out the adjectives and state their kinds.

  • The tea is not good.
  • Everybody  makes several mistakes in his life.
  • May is the fifth month of the year.
  • The rose is a beautiful flower.
  • She likes Indian tobacco.

Practice set

Pick out the adjective and name the degree of comparison –

– Love is greater than any other things in the world.

– A dead monkey is not so good as a live donkey.

– Karina is not as beautiful as Karishma. 

– It was the happiest time of my life.

– He congratulated Radha on her grand success.

Practice set

Find out the error part of the following sentences –

  • Enough is enough (A)/ I cannot now (B)/ tolerate this mischief (C) / any much (D)/ No error. (E)  
  • She was delighted (A)/ by the intelligent and brightness (B)/ of the scholars (C) / who used to visit her (D)/ No error. (E)
  • The captain declared (A)/ that his ship had carried (B) / no less than four hundred passengers (C)/ on the last voyage (D)/ No error. (E)
  • I am going to bed (A)/ and you would be well (B)/ advised (C)/ to do likely (D)/ No error. (E)
  • Hockey is (A)/ more popular than (B)/ any game (C)/ today (D)/ No error. (E)
  • Very few things (A)/ in the world (B)/ is as valuable as (C)/ friendship (D)/ No error. (E)
  • I do not (A)/ know her (B)/ good (C)/ than you do (D) No error. (E)
  • This photo (A)/ is comparatively better (B)/ than that which she had kept (C)/ in her pocket (D) No error. (E)
  • Can you tell me (A) how many eggs and (B)/ milk he has brought (C)/ from the market (D)/ No error. (E)
  • Radha (A)/ is senior (B)/ than (C)/ vassha (D) No error. (E)

Articles

An article is a limiting word not descriptive which cannot be used alone, but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing or a group or any individual of a group or class.

There are two kinds of  articles ------------------

 Definite(The)---------------------------Indefinite(A/An)

Use of A:

(1) उन Nouns के साथ जिनके पहले अक्षर की ध्‍वनि consonant हो।   

A doctor, A woman

(2) Singular countable noun के साथ 

A mango, A banana

(3) जब किसी वस्‍तु का वर्णन First Time किया गया हो।

(4) वे शब्द जिनका उच्‍चारण करते समय ‘u’ की ध्‍वनि लम्‍बी हो। 

A university, A uniform, A useful book etc.

(5) ‘One’ शब्‍द से पहले  -A one way, a one year course etc.

Use of An:

उन Nouns से पहले जिनका उच्‍चारण करते समय प्रारम्भिक ध्‍वनि हिन्‍दी ‘स्‍वर’ (अ, आ, इ, ई) हो तो article ‘An’ का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।

Eg. – An apple, An hour, An honest etc.

Note: पूरी जाति का बोध कराने के लिये Singular countable noun के पहले Articles a/an का प्रयोग किया जाता है। 

Exclamation में What के बाद Singular Countable के साथ Article a/an का प्रयोग किया जाता है। 

(1) Range of mountains (पर्वत श्रेणी) के नामो के पहले Article ‘The’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

The Himalayas The Alps etc.

Note: Peak (चोटी), Mountains एक वचन में हैं तो उनके नाम के पहले ‘The’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता हैं। 

Eg. –Mount Everest, Mount Abu etc.

(2) Group of islands (द्वीप समूह) के नामो से पहले 

The East Indies, The Andamans etc.

Note:  वे द्वीप जो एकवचन रूप में होते है, उनके नामों से पहले The का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है। 

Sumatra, Sicily ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

(3) Heavenly Bodies (आकाशीय पिण्‍ड), Directions (दिशा), Wonders of world etc के साथ Article ‘The’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है। 

Eg. –The earth, The moon, The air etc.

(4) Whole class (सम्‍पूर्ण वर्ग) के लिये use आने वाले Singular nouns से पहले 

Eg. –The man is Mortal

(5) Magazines, Newspapers, Religious books के नाम से पहले 

Eg. –The Geeta, The Hindustan Times etc.

(6) Ordinal number से पहले

Eg. –I got the first prize in the dance competition

Nore: Roman number के साथ न तो The लगता है और ना ही st/nd लगाया जाता हैं। 

(7) High ranks के नामों से पहले 

The principal, The headmaster ,The president etc...................

(8) Proper noun से पहले जो Common Nouns की तरह use होते हैं। 

Eg. –Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India

(9) Superlative degree से पहले 

(10) Musical instruments  से पहले

The Guitar, The Tabla

(11) Gulf/ Canals / Ocean / Waterfall के नाम से पहले

The Bay of Bengal

(12) Political Parties के नामों से पहले 

Eg. –The B.J.P., The A.B.V.P., The N.S.U.I etc.

(13) Data denoting words/ dates of months से पहले

The 5th of May

(14) Historical buildings, Events, Places से पहले

Eg. –The Red Fort .

(15) Comparative degree में than ना हो या वाक्‍य में contrast (विरोध) का बोध हो। 

Eg. –Radha is the longest of the two.

(16) Armed forces / Govt. Departments के नामों से पहले 

The Airforce, The Legislative etc.

(17) The को whole व some के बाद तथा both व all के बाद use किया जाता हैं। 

Omission of Articles

(1) Language के नाम से पहले Article का use नहीं किया जाता है। 

Eg. – He can not speak the English --- He can not speak English.

(2) Festival व Name of seasons से पहले। 

(3) Sports के नामों से पहले

(4) Possessive Adjectives के साथ Articles का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है। 

(5) School, College, Hospital, Prison,  etc का प्रयोग मौलिक उद्देश्‍यों के लिये हो तो Article का use नहीं होता है। 

(6) Name of days, Names of months के साथ Article का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।

(7) Name of diseases के साथ Articles का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता हैं। 

Note: कुछ बीमारियों के साथ The Article का use किया जाता है - The gout, The Plague etc.

(8) Proper noun के साथ Article का use नहीं किया जाता है। 

Errors

  • (a) A first step (b) in a rational solution (c) to any problem is the (d) recognition that a problem exist (e) No error.
  • (a) Munni leads (b) a very busy life (c) so she goes everywhere (d) by a car (e) No error. 
  • (a) Thanks to an insight (b) and persistence of the local doctor (c) hundreds of victims have been (d) able to resume normal life (e) No error.
  • (a) In a hour’s time (b) when I had finished the work (c) I got up and (d) slipped old unnoticed (e) No error.
  • (a) Billu uses (b) the mock heroic (c) style to depict (d) a violence (e) No error.

Conjunction

A Conjunction is a word which joins two or more than two words. Phrases, Clauses or sentences.

How to use conjunction ?

  • Hardly/scarcely के बाद when या before का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Eg., - Scarcely had he gone out of the office when it began rain.

  • Lest के बाद हमेशा should का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
  • Rather तथा Other के बाद हमेशा Than का use किया जाता है।

Eg. – They have no other choice than to write a letter

  • Whether के बाद हमेशा or का use किया जाता है।

Eg.- I don’t care  whether they sing or dance.

  • Not only के बाद but also का, Neither के बाद Nor तथा Either के साथ or का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
  • Else के बाद but का प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Eg. – I want nothing else but to sing a song. 

  • No Sooner के बाद हमेशा than का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
  • Until का प्रयोग Time के लिये होता है।
  • Unless का use ‘Condition’ के लिये किया जाता है।
  • Such के बाद सामान्‍यत: As का use किया जाता है।

Note : यदि वाक्‍य में Cause, Result का बोध हो तो such के बाद that का use किया जाता है। 

  • The same के बाद that/as का use किया जाता है।
  • Both के बाद हमेशा and का use किया जाता है।

Both Gulabdevi and Prabhatilal are hardworker

  • Although / Though के बाद yet या Comma का use किया जाता है।

Although he is poor yet he is an honest man.

Errors

  • (a) Because Ram is intelligent (b) therefore he gets good (c) marks in all the (d) examinations he takes (e) No error.
  • (a) Both the rich along with (b) the poor are responsible for (c)a great many vices with which society (d) as well as country is inflicted (e) No error.
  • (a) Sunil suggested to me (b) that I should (c) do all the work as (d) quickly like him (e) No error.
  • (a) Krishan was so clever (b) that every body’s attempt (c) to misguide him (d) proved to be futile (e) No error.
  • (a) No sooner did (b) Rahul find out any solution (c) to the problem when (d) another problem appeared (e) No error.
  • (a) Not only has Vijay built (b) a hospital for the poor (c) but he has also built an (d) orphanage for orphans (e) No error.
  • (a) Scarely had Yogesh bought (b) the ticket when the guild (c) showed the flag and (d) the train started (e) No error.
  • (a) I don’t know (b) if any of the members (c) of the party (d) is conspiring against the president or not (e) No error.

The Interjection

An Interjection is a word or group of words the expresses some sudden feeling or emotion at the mind. These words are also known as exclamatory words.

Emotion

Interjections

E.g.

Hesitation 

   Er

Jaipur is the capital of …er.. Raj.

Agreement

    Well

Shall we write ? ‘uh-huh’

Greeting

Hi/hello

Hil, What’s new?

Surprise

Oh!, What! Ha!

Oh!, You are here

Appreciation

Bravo!, Hear-Hear

Bravo!, You have done well

Calling

Hello!, Ho!, Hey!

Hey !, What are you doing

Monkey Silent

Hush!, Sh… !

Sh..! Stop Talking

 

Tense

            (N) -

Origin                                      Tense

Latin                                        Old French

Tempus                                    Tens                                         Tense

                                                                                                 (Time)

 

Time                                                                                        (middle English)       

  • A tense is a form taken by a verb to show the time of an action.
  • A form of a verb that is used to show when an action happened.

                                    Tense

                 Present                                          Past                            Future

          Indefinite /  Simple

  • Continuous/ Progressive
  • Perfect
  • Perfect Continuous

                                               Present Simple Tense

  • To express habits, general truth, repeated or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes--i,e--
  • ---- I smoke – (Habit)
  • ---- He drinks tea at breakfast. (habit)
  • ---- I work in Jaipur – (unchanging situation)
  • ---- We catch the bus every morning. (repeated action)
  • ----- Jaipur is a large city (general truth)
  • To give instructions or directions
  • ----------You walk for three hundred meters; then you turn right.
  • express fixed arrangements, present or To future:
  • Your exam starts at 10:00.
  • Radha arrives tomorrow.
  • Present tense habitual activities are frequently signaled by time expressions such as the following.
  • All the time, always, every class/ day/ week/ month/ year/ often/ rarely / sometimes/usually, seldom, daily/often/ never.
  • -----------She walks to work every day.
  • Aas soon also use it to talk about the future after words like, when, until, after, before and We  s in future sentence- I’ll give you the book before you go.

Simple Sentences

  • --(for singular)     Sub + vI + s/es + ob + ow –

Singular verb -Shyam writes a poem.

.( plural subject)    --Sub + vI+ob+ow –

 - They sing a song.

  • To make a negative sentence in English we normally use –

Don’t / doesn’t

Do – with Plural Subject

Does – with Singular Subject

 Formula------Sub + do/does + not + vI + ob

Affirmative – He speaks English.

Negative – He does not Speak English.

  • They write a letter

N-    They do not write a letter

  • We sing a song.

N - We do not sing a song.

Interrogative –

To make a question in English in present simple we normally use  Do/does. It is normally put at the beginning of the question.

  •   Formula------Do/does+ sub+ vI+ob - ?
  • Do we eat food?
  • Does Anurag   take milk?
  • Do you write a poem?
  • Does they go to temple?
  • Does he like pizza?
  • Do you need a dictionary?
  • Does she like chocolate?

Interrogative – Negative –

Normally use Do/does

  • It is normally put at the beginning of the question.

H.v – Do/does

Negative – Not

Formula – Do/does + sub + not + vI + ob  - ?

  • Does she not go to temple?
  • Do they not run on the road?
  • Do you not read a novel?
  • Does Mona not ride a bike?

Drill

Complete the sentences by using right verbs

  • He – (drive) to work every day
  • I (not think) you are right.
  • We (have) enough time?
  • I (eat) mango in the morning?
  • She (write) e-mails every day?
  • She (dance) often?
  • When – I (come) on Monday?
  • You speak English?
  • We (take) the bus often?
  • They (not like) vegetables?

Present Continuous

  • Use the present continuous with normal verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment.
  • In English, ‘’ now’’ can mean: this second, this month, this year, this century, and soon.
  • Hv -   is/are/am

Is  -  with singular

Are - with plural

Am  – with ‘I’

  • M.V. – vI ting
  • I am studying to become an engineer.
  • I am reading the book lost spirits.
  • She is cooking food.
  • They are playing cricket.

Neg :-   Use – not with H.v. – is/are/am

  • Sub+is/are/am+vI ing+ ob-
  • Radha is not reading any book right now.

Interrogative

H.v. + Sub + vI + ing + ob - ?

- Are you doing homework?

- Is she teaching English?

- Am I taking milk?

Interrogative – Negative

  • H.v. + Sub + not + vIing + ob - ?
  • Are you not singing a song?
  • Is she not driving a car?

Note: -

  •  It is important to remember that Non – continuous verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for mixed verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses, Instead of using present continuous with these verbs, you must use simple present.
  • Neha is loving this chocolate ice-cream. (X)

Neha loves this chocolate ice-cream. (✓)

(See, hear, smell, notice, recognize, taste, appear, seem, look, love, hate, abhor, despise, detest, like, dislike, hope, lake, sound etc.)

  • Adverb placement –
  • Always, only, never, still, just, etc.
  • Mona is still watching movie.
  • Note------If ‘Appear’ use in the meaning of ‘publish’ – use continuous tense –

When is his new book appearing?

Present Perfect

  • We use the present perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. We can use the present perfect with unspecific expression such: even, never, once, many times, just, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

For Past events with a connection to the present with words of unfinished time-

  • H.v – Has/have

(Has – with singular

Have – with plural)

  • M.s. – VIII
  • Affirmative, sentence –

Sub + has/have + vIII + ob-

  • I have eaten.
  • I have paid the bill.
  • She has studied
  • They have seen three movies this week.
  • Ram has just arrived in Jaipur.
  • Use not with helping verb has/have.

Neg – Sub+has/have+not+vIII+ob+

  • The board has not decided not to uphold the appeal.
  • I have not taken the wrong path again.
  • Anamika has not played basketball.
  • We have not taken tea.

              Interrogative – Has/have+ Sub+ Past participle + ob -?

  • Have you sung a song?
  • Has she cooked food?
  • Have we won the match?
  • Has shyam written a novel?

Interco – neg.

H.v.+Sub+not+vIII+ob - ?

- Have you not played tennis?

- Have you got a prize?

- Has she cut onions?

Directions – Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verb in the present perfect.

I – in this country all my life. (Live)

She – her homework. (Do)

It – the entire week. (Rain)

Akshay knows everyone in her town because he these since he was a baby (live)

Me – a movie in a very long time (not see)

You – any breakfast yet either. (Not have)

If – in almost four weeks and the grounds is too dry. (Rain)

Present Perfect Continuous

  • The present perfect continuous refers to and unspecified time between ‘before now’ and ‘now’.

H.v. – Has/have+been

M.v. – base+ing  (vI ing)

For time use preposition  – Since/for

Since –  to indicate point of the time.

For –  before the period of the time.

  • Formula – Sub+Auxiliary Verb + mainverb + present + participte + object + since/for + time.
  • It has been raining for three days.
  • They have been watching television since 5 o’clock.
  • We have been working in this company since 2014.

Negative – we use Not with  helping verb ....

  • It has not been raining for three days.
  • He has not been playing cricket for two hours.

Interrogative –formula -h.v.+sub+been+v1ing+ob+since/for+T ?

  • Has it been raining for three days?
  • Have you been working in this office since 2009?

Interrogative – neg.

  • Has he not been watering the plants for three hours?
  • Have you not been studying since morning?

Choose the correct answer –

  • I’ve been playing football-
  • All day       B. Yesterday   C. two hours age         D. after three months
  • She working very hard recently.
  • Has not been          B. has not        C. have not been         D. have been
  • We _________ raising money for charity.
  • I have not been      B. hasn’t been C. haven’t       D. Was not
  • The company is huge. If___________a thousand new jobs since the beginning of last year.
  • Has creating                       B. have creating                      C. was creating                       D. None of these
  • We (produce) ________this product since the beginning of the year.
  • Have been producing
  • Has been producing
  • Has not been producing
  • Are producing

Past Simple

  • It is used to express an action that happened or completed in past, usually a very little time before speaking, or action which is just completed.
  • In following time expressing words (adverbs of time) – yesterday, the day before, the other day, ago, last day, week, month, year etc.
  • 2nd form of verb is used as main verb in the Affirmative sentences and base form is used in negative and interrogative sentences.
  • In affirmative sentences –
  • Use – m.v. 2nd
  • Formulas – Sub + v II + ob.
  • Ram ate food.
  • Sonali took a glass of milk
  • I –
  • He –
  • She –

Negative – H.v. = did+not

                   m.v. = base form (v I)

-      m.v – base form (v I)

-      Suman did not take tea.

Interrogative – Did+Sub+v I+ob - ?

      Did Mamta love you?

      Did ---?

      Did they ----?

      Did She ---?

Interrogative – Neg. – Did+Sub+not+v I+ ob - ?

Did you not read a book?

Did she - ?

Did he - ?

Did we - ?

Past Continuous

  • In the past continuous a specific time only interrupts the action
  • Adverbs of time- at that moment, at that time, in those days etc.
  • Rules – Auxiliary verb ‘was or were’ is used in sentence. 1st form of verb or base verb+ing (present participle) is used as main verb in sentence –
  • H.v. – was / were

Was = with   singular

Were = with plural

           m.v. – Base verb + ing / v I ing

Formula – Sub+was/were+v I ing + ob-

  • She was climbing on a hill.
  • They were laughing at the joker.
  • We were working in a factory.

Negative – Sub+Was/were+ not + v I ing+ ob-

  • She was not waiting for me.
  • They were not reading a notice.
  • We –
  • You  –

Interrogative – H.v.+ Sub+ v Iing+ ob - ?

  • Was she going to uadipur ?
  • Were they - ?
  • Were you - ?
  • Was he - ?

Interrogative – negative –

  • H.v.+sub+not+v I ing+ ob - ?
  • Were they not sleeping?
  • Was she - ?
  • Was Mohini - ?

Past Perfect

  • For actions that happened before a past event-

H.v- had

M.v. – v III

Sub+had+v III+ob-

  • He had won a lottery.
  • She had jumped into the river.
  • Neg- He had not won a lottery?
  • Interro – Had he won a lottery?
  • Interrogative – had he not won a lottery ?

(Had) + past participle     -     then another activity

First a completed activity

  • I is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does not mattter which event is mentioned first the tense makes it clear.

Past+perfect+jus

Just is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was only a short time earlier than before now, e:g –

  • The train had just left when I arrived
  • I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.
  • Past + perfect + before + past simple
  • The film had started before we reached cinema.
  • Tracker had taught before I reached in the class.
  • The crops had destroyed before it rained.
  • As soon as he had finished his homework, he ran out to play hockey.

Exercise –

  • When I arrived at the cinema, the film ________ (start)
  • Vijaya ______(live) in India before she went to Japan.
  • After they _____(eat) the shellfish, they began to feel sick.
  • He ______(meet) her somewhere before.
  • I ________(not have) breakfast when he arrived.

Past Perfect Continuous

  • The past perfect continuous tense is used to express something that started in the past and continued until another time in the past.

H.v. – Had + been (some for all subjects)

M.V. – v I + ing

For tine – Since (point of the time)/ for – period of the time.

Formula – Sub+ had + been+ v I + ing + ob +since/for + time.

  • The children had been standing at the bus stop for thirty minutes.
  • I had been reading a novel since 2015.
  • Neg . I had not been reading a novel since 2015.

Interrogative – Had his elder sister been dancing for two hours ?

  • Had Munni been singing a song since 2013 ?

Interrogative

  • Had she not been watching T.V. for four hours?
  •  Had Monika not been playing cricket since 2014?
  • They ___ (fly) for eight hours before they finally reached New Delhi.
  • We ___ (Struggle) for several years before the business finally took off.
  • I ___ (sit) there for more than an hour before she arrived.
  • If _____(not rain) for two months.
  • Had you not been (study) Hindi before you moved to Sikar.

Future Simple

  • The future simple tense is often called the ‘will tense’’ because we make the future simple with modal auxiliary. will –
  • The Simple future is used.
  • To predict a future event.
  • It will rain tomorrow.
  • With I or we, to express spontaneous decision.
  • I’ll pay for the tickets by credit card.
  • To express willingness.
  • He will carry your bag for you.
  • To make an offer .
  • Shall I open the window?
  • To make a suggestion.
  • Shall we go to the cinema tonight?
  • With ‘you’ to give orders.
  • You will do exactly as I say.
  • With you in the interrogation  form, to give an invitation : -
  • Will you come to the dance with me?
  • Will you marry me?

Adverb of time – tomorrow, next day/ week/ month/ year

H.V.- Shall / will

m.v. – Base form (v I)

- Formula – Sub+shall/will+ v I+ ob-

- They will buy a computer tomorrow.

Neg. – He will not send me a letter.

Interrogative – Will Aishwarya give you a pen tomorrow?

           Will you _________?

           Will She __________?

           Will he ___________?

Interrogative- negative  – Will you not come have?

  • Will they ______?
  • Will She ________?
  • Will He ________?

Future Continuous

  • It used to express a continued or an ongoing action in future.
  • Auxiliary verb – Shall/will + be
  • M.V.     - 1st form of verb + ing
  • Structure – Sub+shall/will+be+v I ing+ ov –

A -   He will be waiting for me.

N – You will not be waiting for me.

Interro. – Will you be feeling well tomorrow?

Interro- Neg. – Will you not be shifting to a new home next year ?

  • He will be _____?
  • The will not be _____?
  • Will you be _______?
  • Will she not be _______?

Future Perfect

  • The future perfect tense is quite an easy tense to understand and use. The future perfect talks about the past in the future.
  • H.V. – Shall / will + have
  • M.V. – v III
  • Formula – Sub+shall/will+ have+ v III + ob .
  • You will have finished this book.
  • She will have studied the English tenses.
  • She will have cooked dinner.
  • It will have stopped raining.

Neg - you will not have met Akshay.

           She ___

           They ___

Interrogative: -

           Will you have taken milk?

           Will she have _______?

           Will he have ________?

Interrogative – Negative –

  • Will it not have got colder by May?
  • Will she not have met _________?
  • Will he not have _____________?
  • __________(she/arrive) by 10 o’clock ?
  • __________(you/eat) by six ?
  • __________(It/stop) raining by tomorrow morning ?
  • __________(you/read) my book ?
  • __________(you/do) by the end of the day ?

Future perfect continuous

  • The future perfect progressive tense is used for an on – going action that will be completed at some specified time in the future.
  • H.V.- Shall/will + have been
  • M.V. v I + ing
  • For time – since (point of the time)/ for – period of the time.
  • Formula – Sub +s hall/will+ have been + v I ing + ob + since/for+ Time.
  • They will have been Singing Since 2018.
  • She will have been reading Shyam yadav's  novel  'Wo Ladki" wsince 2019.

Neg. -  She will not have been studying since 2018.

Interrogative – Will she have been studying since 2019?

Interrogative – Neg. – Will she not have been studying since 2018?

Exercise

It is (A) raining (B) for two days (C) No error (D).

I (A) have seen (B) him yesterday(C). No error (D).

I (A) had written (B) to him last week (C). No error (D).

  • He said that he (A) was suffering from fever (B) for two days(C). No error (D).
  • The postman has come already (A). there are no(B) letters for you (C) No error (D).
  • She dreaming of (A) the day when she can (B) go to china to visit her relatives (C) No error (D).
  • The car looks (A) dirty but it was cleaned (B) yesterday (C). No error (D).
  • Choose the correct word out of four alternatives to fill the blanks.
  • All though the police ______ every precaution, the robber managed to escape.
  • Take           B. Takes          C. Has taken   D. had taken
  • The boys _______ television every night unless they have homework.
  • Watch        B. Watches      C. Watched     D. Watching
  • I _______ the door before I realized that the keys were inside the house.
  • Lock                       B. Locked       C. Has locked D. Had locked
  • Ankur _____ Rs. 900 for that bag.
  • Pay             B. Paid                        C. Pays                        D. Paying
  • The groom, together with his parents, __________ the guests.
  • Is greeting        B. have greeted           C. am greeting             D. well greeting
  • Nobody __________ the telephone an hour ago.
  • Is using      B. were using              C. was using                D. has used
  • Passengers ________ to smoke in the train.
  • Are not allowed    
  • Was not allowed
  • Had not allowed
  • Will not allow
  • The Price ________ but I doubt whether it will remain so –
  • Went down
  • Will go down
  • Has gone down
  • Was going down
  • Maya _________ her father in the shop until school starts.
  • Was helping
  • Is Helping
  • Helped
  • Has helped
  • The people next door ________ a lot of noise until past midnight.
  • Was making
  • Has made
  • Are making
  • Were making

Confusable words

Word              –                      definitions 

Accede           –                     to agree or allow

Exceed            –                      to go beyond to surpass

 

Accept            –                      to take willingly

Except             –                      excluding      

 

Adapt              –                      to adjust

Adept              –                      skilled

Adopt              –                      accept as your own

 

Adverse           –                      unfavorable

Averse             –                       unwilling or repelled

 

Advice (N)      –                    an opinion given with the intention of help

Advise (V)      –                     to give counsel or advice

 

Affect              –                     to influence

Effect               –                     to cause

 

Aid                  –                      help or assistance given

Aide                –                      a person who helps

 

All right           –                      everything is righ

Alright             –                       ok

 

Allways           –                      by every means / method

Always            –                      forever   

 

Allude             –                      to suggest indirectly

Elude               –                      to dodge or escape

 

Allusion           –                     hint

Illusion            –                      a wild idea, mirage

 

Almost            –                     nearly all

Most               –                      highest

 

Aloud               –                   speaking loudly

Allowed           –                   having permission

 

Already (Adv.)  –                  action is completed by a certain time

All ready           –                  everything is completely prepared

 

Alternately      –                      taking turns

Alternatively    –                      an option

 

Amused          –                      something is entertaining

Bemused         –                      bewidrered or lost in though

 

Annual           –                       yearly

Annul              –                      invalid, to make void

 

Any one          –                      any one person

Anyone           –                      anybody, any person at all

 

Apart               –                      in pieces

A part              –                      one section of

 

Ascent             –                      upward movement

Assent             –                      to agree 

 

Ascetic            –                      a person who renounces all material comforts

Aesthetic         –                      pleasing qualities of something

 

Assure             –                      to guarantee

Ensure             –                      to make sure by double checking

Insure              –                      to provide insurance

 

Baited             –                      to traps

Bated              –                      reduced

 

Biannual          –                      twice in one year

Biennial           –                      every two years

 

Bimonthly       –                      every two months

Semimonthly   –                      twice a month (biweekly)

 

Blithe              –                      light erred

Lithe                –                      grace ful

 

Bore                –                      boring

Boar                –                      a male pig 

Boor                –                      vulgar person

 

Born                –                      newly coming into life

Borne              –                      carried

 

Canvas            –                     cloth or fabric

Canvass          –                      examine thoroughly

 

Cite                 –                      to quote or mention

Site                  –                      a place

Sight                –                      view

 

Coarse             –                      rough

Course             –                      series of lectures on one subject.

 

Collaborate      –                      to work together

Corroborate     –                      to support with evidence

 

Complement    –                      to supplement

Compliment    –                      to praise

 

Conform          –                      to be similar

Confirm           –                      to make sure

 

Cannote           –                     imply or suggest

Denote            –                      indicate specifically

 

Conscience      –                      feeling or knowledge of right and wrong

Conscious        –                      being awake and aware

 

Credible          –                      reliable

Creditable       –                      worthy of praise of respect

 

Desert              –                      to abandon

Dessert            –                      sweet course of a meal

 

Divers              –                      several

Diverse            –                      different or varied

 

Discreet           –                      modest and prudent

Discrete           –                      separate or distinct

 

Emigrate          –                      to leave one’s country

Immigrate        –                      to settle in another country

 

Eminent           –                      prestigious, outstanding

Emanant          –                      issuing forth

Imminent         –                     close to happening or near

 

Entomology       –                   study of insects

Entymology       –                    study of the history words and where they come from

 

Explicit      –                   clear and direct

Implicit      –                   indirectly

 

Farther      –                   do with distance

Further      –                   additional or more

 

Faze          –                   distress or disturb

Phase        –                   a period of time in a cycle of events

 

Forth         –                    forward

Fourth       –                    indicates an object that comes between no.3

 

Foul          –                     offensive, rotten

Fowl         –                     refers to birds

 

Hail           –                      to greet or to come from

Hale          –                     sound or healthy        

 

Heroin       –                      an illicit drugs

Heroine     –                      female hero

 

Hoard       –                      to collect and keep for oneself

Horde        –                      a large group

 

Latent       –                      present but not visible or active

Patent       –                      visible, active

 

Later         –                      after ward

Latter        –                      lost of two things mentioned

 

Mantel       –                      shelf above a fire place

Mantle       –                       a clock or blanket

 

Marital       –                      refers to marriage

Martial       –                      refers to war or warriors

 

Marshal      –                      office of highest ranking

Marshall     –                      to together

 

Meet          –                      to get together

Mete          –                      to distribute

 Meat         –                      flesh that may be eaten

 

Noisome    –                      disgusting, offensive, harmful

Noisy         –                      making a lot of sound

 

Peek          –                      to look quickly

Pique         –                      to arouse or provoke

Peak          –                      highest point of something

 

Peer           –                      gaze strongly

Pier            –                      an equal

 

Plain           –                      simple

Plane          –                      flat and level surface

 

Precede      –                      to come or go before

Proceed      –                      to move forward

 

Premise       –                     assumption

Premises      –                     hose or building and the ground around it.

 

Profligate     –                    wasteful or extravagant

Prolific         –                    fruitful, producing much

 

Quiet           –                      without sound or mention of

Quite           –                      completely or somewhat

 

Rain             –            water that falls from the sky

Reign           –            rule of a king or queen

Rein             –             straps of leather used to control and guid a horse

 

Raise            –             to build or grow

Raze             –             to destroy

 

Regimen         –               a systematic plan

Regiment        –               troop of soldiers

 

Residence       –               where people live

Residents        –               people who live there

 

Respectfully    –                 politely and with respect

Respectively    –                refers to the order in which things are given

 

Restive      –                      impatient and nervous, restless

Restful       –                      full of rest, clam, quiet

 

Retch         –                    to try and vomit

Wretch       –                   miserable or wicked person

 

Right          –                      correct

Rite            –                      a ceremony

Write          –                      to express oneself in writing

 

Role           –                      a part in a play or movie

Roll            –                      to turn over and over

 

Stationary   –                      still and unmoving

Stationery   –                      writing materials such as paper

 

Statue         –                      carved or shaped imitation of an object

Statute        –                      law  

Stature        –                      status, standing

 

Storey         –                      a floor of a building

Story           –                      a tale

 

Straight        –                      no bends or curve

Strait            –                      a narrow channel connecting two bodies of water

 

Tenant          –                      someone who rents property

Tenet            –                      a principle

 

Throes          –                      difficult times

Throws         –                      plural or present tense of throw

 

Torpid           –                      lacking alertness

Turgid            –                      very ornate and decorative

 

Tortuous        –                      winding, crooked

Torturous       –                      very painful

 

Sanguine        –                      red, ruddy or optimistic

Saturnine        –                      being moody, sullen or melancholy

 

Scene             –                      a place or view

Seen               –                      past tense of see

 

Seam              –                      where two pieces are joined

Seem              –                      to appear or look

 

Sensual           –                      physical, especially sexual, pleasure

Sensuous        –                      appetitive

 

Serf                –                      salve / servant

Surf                –                      to ride the waves of water

 

Sever              –                      to cut through completely

Severe            –                      strict, hard, extreme

 

Shear              –                      to cut off

Sheer              –                      pure

 

Shore              –                      beach

Sure                –                      without doubt

 

Singly              –                      one by one

Singularly        –                      extraordinarily

 

Sole                –                      single

Soul                –                      spirit of a living creature

 

Vane               –                      blade that rotates

Vain                –                      fruitless, hope less

Vein                –                      tubes that carry blood back to the heart

 

Venal              –                      money – grubbing

Venial             –                      easily forgiven

 

Vicious           –                      cruel and mean

Viscous           –                      thick and sticky

 

Waist              –                      human body between the hips and ribs

Waste             –                      to use carelessly

 

Wary              –                      leery and cautions

Weary            –                      tired and worn

 

Wave              –                      move back and forth

Waive             –                      to give up, not require or ask for

 

Wet                –                      full of moisture

Whet              –                      arouse

Phrasal Verbs

  • Get on – to have a good relationship with someone.

– She gets on really well with the people at work

  • Take on – to accept extra work.

– I will take on a lot of extra hours this week, I need the money.

  • Build on – to use your success to go further

– Raj has really built on his excellent work in this department.

  • Decide on – to choose

– I’m trying to decide on what type of cake I want for the birthday.

  • Hold on – to wait.

– Please hold on, the manger isn’t ready to see you yet.

  • Try on – try to see if they fit.

– Could I try on this dress in a size eleven please ?

  • Go on – to continue.

– Go after – try to achieve something.

– Shyam yadav went after his  dreams  and now he is  a published writer.

Put on              –          to dress oneself

Put in               –          to interrupt a conversation

Put up              –          to give food and accommodation

Put down         –          to insult

Put away         –          to clean, to store

Work out        –          do physical exercise

Pass out         –           faint, lose consciousness

Fill out           –           complete a form

Break out     –            start suddenly

Eat out          –            eat in a restaurant

Pick out         –            choose from a group

Make out      –            manage to see or hear

– Get out of                 –          to avoid something you don’t want to do.

– Get rid of                  –          to throw away something.    

Get across                –          to make someone understand

– Get along with         –           to have a good relationship.

– Get around               –          to avoid a difficult situation.

– Get off lightly          –           to experience less trouble than expected.

Get away from         –           to escape

– Get at                       –          to criticize someone repeatedly

– Get through to         –          to successfully explain something

– Get down                 –          to cause someone to feel sad/depressed

– Call after – to give a child the same name as someone else.

– Call around – to go to someone’s house to visit them.

– I called around on Sunday but you weren’t there.

– Call away – to ask someone to go somewhere else.

– I am afraid the doctor was called away on an emergency earlier today, but he should be back soon.

Call back – to return a phone call or to phone someone again.

– Sheela is on another call at the moment, but I will get her to call you back.

Call for – publicly demand that something be done.

– The protesters were calling for the resignation of the prime minister.

– Call forth – to elicit a reaction.

– Call in – to phone, to visit someone. 

– Call off – to cancel an organized event.

– Akshay Called of the birthday party of the very last minute!

– Call on – to visit someone / to demand or request that someone do something.

– The supporters of the opposition called on the government to call a new election.

– Call up

– to phone somebody –

– Look after – to take care of someone or something.

– I need to find someone who can look after my dogs this weekend while I’m on holiday.

– Look ahead

            To think about and plan the future.

Let’s look ahead to next month’s projected sales figures.

– Look around / round –

Do they want to have a look around/round town this evening.

Look at – To consider or examine something –

– We will have to look at all the proposals before coming to any decision.

Ask out – invite on a date

– Radha asked Shyam out to dinner.

– Ask around – ask many people the same question.

– I asked around but nobody has seen my belt.

– Add up to – equal

            Your purchases add up to $101.11.

 break down – stop functioning (vehicle/machine) 

– Their car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm.

Break down – get upset

– The woman broke down when the police told that her son had injured.

Break in – force entry to a building

– Somebody broke in last night and store Jewellers.

Back up

1. Support

2. If you back up a claim or story, you supply evidence to prove it is true.

3. In computer – back up a tile/programme

Means – to make a copy of it.

Black out – lose consciousness or memory temporarily

– Sanjana did not remember what happened after the accident, he had blacked out.

Break up – end a relationship

– My girlfriend and I broke up before I moved to Condon.

Break out – escape

– The Prisioner broke out of Jail when the guards weren’t looking.

Break out in – develop a skin develop.

Bring up – raise a child.

– He was brought up by his grandparents.

Bring up – Start talking about a subject.

– My sister walks out of the room when my brother brings up sports.

– Bring forth – to produce

– Trees bring forth fruit.

– A women brings forth a baby.

– Do away with – discard

– It’s time to do away with all of these old tax records.

Do up – fasten, close –

– Do your umbrella Up before you go outside. It’s raining!

Dress up – wear nice clothing.

– It’s a fancy restaurant.So we have to dress up.

Drop back – move back in a position / group.

– Andura dropped back to third Place when she fell off his bike.

Drop in / by / over – Come without an appointment.

– I might drop in / by / over for coffee this week.

– Cut up – Destroy completely.

Fall apart – break into pieces

– Her new shirt fell apart in the washing machine.

Fall out – Became loose and unattached.

– His hair started to fall out when he was twenty five.

Figure out – understand, find the answer.

– I need to figure out how to fit the piano and bookshelf in this room.

Get across / get over – Communicate, make understandable.

– I tried to get my point across/over to the Judge but he wouldn’t listen.

Hand down – (give stng used to sby else)

– I handed my book down to my cousin.

Hand in –submit

– They have to hand in their project by Monday.

– Hang in – Stay positive (informal) hang in there, I’m sure you’ll win a lotter soon.

Hang on – wait a short time.

– Hang on while I grab my coat.

Hold back – hide an emotion.

Hold up – rob –                    

A man in a black mask held the bank up this morning.

– Keep on doing – continue doing.

Keep up –continue at the same rate.

– If you keep those results up you will get into a great college.

Make up – apply cosmetics to / forgive each – other.

– We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast

– Mix up – confuse two or more things.

Pass out – give the same thing to many people.

– The professor passed the text books out before class.

Pass up – decline

– I passed up the job because I am afraid of change.

Pay back – return owed money

– Thanks for buying my ticket, I’ll pay you back on Sunday.

Pick out – choose

– I picked out two shirts for you to try on.

Put down – put what you are holding on a surface or floor.

Put down – insult/make sby feel stupid.

– The student put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short.

Put off – postpone

Put out – extinguish

– The put the fire out before the fireman arrived.

Put together – assemble

Put up with –tolerate

Put on – put clothing / accessories on your body

Run into – meet unexpectedly

– I ran into Aishwarya at the mall.

Run over – drive a vehicle over a person or thing.

Run over / through – review

– Let’s run over / through these lines one more time before the show.

Run away – leave unexpectedly, escape

Run out – have none left

We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap.

Send back – return (usually by mail)

– Set up – arrange, organize,

– Set up – trick / trap

– Ajay set a meeting up with CEO of the company.

Shop around – compare prices.

– I want to shop around a little before I decide on these cameras.

Show off – act extra special for people watching.

Sort out – organize, resolve a problem.

– we need to sort the bills out before the first of the month.

Switch off – stop the energy flow, turn off.

Switch on – star the energy flow, turn on.

We heard the interview – as soon as we switched on the radio.

Take after – resemble a family member

– Take back – return an iteam.

– Take off – start to fly.

Take off – remove stng (usually clothing)

Take out – Pay for sby to go somewhere with you.

Tear up – rip into pieces

Think back – remember

Think over – consider

Throw away – dispose of

– We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.

Turn down – decrease the volume strength

Turn down – refuse

– Please turn the TV down.

Turn off – switch off

Turn on – switch on

Turn up – increase the volume

Turn up – appear suddenly

Try on – sample clothing

Try out – test

Use up – finish the supply

Wake up – stop sleeping.

Wear off – fade away

Work out – be successful

Work out – make a calculation

 We have to work out the total the total cost before the buy the house.         

Preposition

 Preposition is the word that show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word or element in the rest of the sentence.

A preposition is a word used before a noun or pronoun to show its relation with the other words of the sentence.

At – (A) name of smaller place.

– Anu lives at – 

B. Before the  Time of clock

– Karishma came at 8 o’clock

C In the sense of  Temporary action –

– Aman is at work

D. To show age or stage

– I left college at twenty.

E Before  Noon and night

– At noon at night

Also use with – at down, at dusk,

At midnight, at day break, at twilight

F. The words which show price, rate or speed

– Milk sells at Rs. 45/- a litre.

– He rides motorbike at 90km/hour.

G.Also  Use with following words –

– At this time, at this moment, at this hour,

– At page 342, At a match, at the bottom,

– At a lecture, At college, At home, At the top etc.

In – Bigger places –

– I live in India

With following phrases

– In the morning, In the evening.

– In the afternoon, – In the night

  • To show permanent action –

–   My brother is in the Army.

  • Before the name of months

–   In January , In February, In March so on----

  • Before the years

– In  1897

– In 1947

– In 1986

– In 2015

  • Before the name of seasons ––

–– In spring, In summer, In winter,

      In autumn –

  • Before the name of age or century ––

– In the Victorian age –

– In the eighteenth century –

– Before – A/An + Car / taxi / Jeep

– Sheela goes to college in a car.

   Sheela goes to college by a car

Into – Motion inside anything.

– Raj Jumped into the river.

– In the sense to change one medium to another.

(Milk turns into curd water turns into ice Translate into Hindi)

On – In the sense of touching any object –

– There is a book on the table.

. Before the name of week’s days

On Monday, on Sunday –

Also use with –

On Sunday/Monday evening

On the morning of the event

On the evening of the 31st December

                        – So on –

Use with – A/An/the + bus / train / aeroplane / ship –

– She was on a bus / a ship / a plane –

With – Possessive Adjective + cycle / scooter / motorcycle –

– Rajan goes to school on his scooter

== Also use with –

Foot, a horse / horse’s back .

– He walks on foot

Check yourself

If you want to go--- bus, you have------ go the bus stop .

  • By, to
  • To, from
  • By, in
  • By, then 

When you arrive _____ your destination---------you the bus.

  • At, of
  • By, off
  • At, off
  • In, at 

Sometimes you even have to change buses ___ another bus stop.

  • Of
  • In
  • On
  • At

I have been waiting ______ 6 o’clock.

  • Since
  • For
  • Forward
  • After 

She has not eaten anything ______ breakfast.

  • For
  • Of
  • In
  • Since 

She got these photos ______ my friend Amit.

  • At
  • By
  • From
  • Infrout of 

______ these pictures you can see a giraffe.

  • Behind
  • In
  • On
  • Off 

 Nikhil was born ______ the 31st December-- 1970.

  • Of, on
  • On, of
  • In, in
  • In, on

Modern mass production ______ case was developed ______ him _____ 1913.

  • Of, by, in
  • In, of, by
  • Of, by, from
  • Of, at, in 

Munih lies 530 meters ______ Sea level .

  • Below
  • Above
  • From
  • Besides 

There is a bridge ______ the river.

  • Across
  • Inside
  • Among
  • Along 

Note – When we say next, last, this, every – we do not use – at, in, on –

– She went to Jaipur last May (Not in last may)

– I go home every Deepawali (not at every Deepawali) 

Of = (A) used for belonging to, relating to, or connected with :-

– The high light of the show is at the end

– I always dreamed of being rich and famous.

(B) Used to indicate reference :-

– This is a picture of my girlfriend

– I took two cup of tea.

To ---

(A) Used to indicate the place, person or thing that someone or something moves toward, or the direction of something.

– The package was mailed to Mr. Yogesh Yesterday.

– Please send it back to Aishwarya.

(B) Used to indicate a limit or an ending point :

– The snow was piled up to the roof –

– The stock Price rose up to 95 dollars.

(C) Used to indicate relationship –

– My answer to your question is in this envelope.

(D) Used to indicate a time or a period:

– I work Monday to Saturdauy

– It is now 9 to 5.30

For

A) Used to indicate the use of something.

– I baked a cake for your birthday.

  • Used to mean because of.

– For this reason, I’ve decided to go Jaipur.

 Used to indicate time or duration.

– Shyam yadav has been famous for many decades.

– This is all I have for today.

 ‘Beside’ and ‘Besides’

– Beside (by the side of / outside)

– Go and sit beside your grandfather.

 – Besides – in addition to

– Besided Raj, all of the boys were present in the seminar.

Over –In the sense of  all over

– English is spoken all over the world

In the sense of more than

– Mr. Shyam is over twenty –

– His  income is not over his expenses –

-In the sense of to be over –

(D) – In excess –

– She overworks in the company.

   Since                                 for

               |                                |

Point of the time        period of the time

 Anita has been working here since 2010.

– She has been working here since two days.

  • By – (A) – in passive voice

– A lottery was won by Neha.

(B) In the sense of edge or near –

My village is by the river. () 

My village is beside the river.*

(C) – Use before the --

Rate, weight, measurement, expressing words etc.

– Mangoes are sold by the kilo.

– This room is 13th by 9ft.

– Silver is sold by the gram.

 Through – (B) – by means of –

– He knew it through a flyer.

– From one side to the other

– Can you see through glass?

– From beginning to the end

– She got bored and could not sit through the night.

= From in the sense of separation

– The fruits have fallen from the tree.

= for Time –

– I attended the meeting from morning to evening.

= Sense of cause

– Suresh is suffering from fever.

= Chemical changes –

– Curd is made from milk –

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