A to Z English Vocabulary
The study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language.
– late 16th century: From French syntaxe, or via late Latin from Greet suntaxis
from sun – ‘together’ + tassein ‘arrange’
– When we speak or write we use words. We generally use these words in groups.
A group of words like this, which makes complete sense is called sentence or/– A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete idea.
→ Other relevant subjects – ---
(Parts of a sentence)
In direct object – An Indirect object is the receiver of the direct object and it usually comes just before it.
– Khushboo gave her mother flowers.
– What is directly affected by this action?
Who receives the flowers? – her mother.
– The object of the preposition
The object of the preposition is a Noun or a pronoun that completes its meaning
Example – Manisha is thinking about.
– This sentence is incomplete. We don’t what is Manisha thinking about.
So – Manisha is thinking about your idea .
Transitive verbs and Intransitive verbs
– Verbs that take direct objects are called transitive verbs.
The meaning of a transitive verb is incomplete without a direct object.
– Karam is drinking a glass of water.
(the meaning of intransitive verb is complete on its own.
– Sharmila is standing.
Or Sunita and Nisha are standing.
A linking verb is verb that connects the subject with an adjective or a noun that identifies or describes it.
– Seema seems very satisfied.
A complement is a word or a group of words (usually an adjective or a noun), that is used after linking verbs (Such as be and become). The complement identifies or describes the subject of the verb.
Rajpal seems very happy.
Subject complement –
(follows a linking verb and Modifies or refers to the subject. It may be noun or an adjective (also known as a predicate adjective)
– Sanjana is pretty. (The adjective Preety is a subject complement, it describes the subject – Sanjana)
– Shyam considers American television silly. (television is the direct object. Silly describes television, it is the object complement.)
– Aunt Gertie gave patty my desert.
(Petty is the indirect object, my desert is the direct object of the verb gave. Both are considered verb complements.)
– Phrases – A group of related words that lacks a subject, or a predicate, or both – and that acts as a single part of speech.
(Prepositional phrase. Noun phrase, verb phrase, verbal phrase) (Infinitive phrase, participial phrase), gerund phrase)
– Clauses – A group of related words containing a subject and a predicate.
(Main (independent), subordinate (dependent).
– Instructions – Find the subject, verbs, predicate nominatives, and direct objects in the following sentences.
Part of speech
– Words and phrases can be grouped according to their sentence building functions.
Syntactic classes of words are traditionally called parts of speech. English has the following parts of speech – : verb, Noun, pronoun, adjective, adverb, preposition – Conjuction, article, Interjection.
Noun – Plural Noun – Nouns
– late middle English : From Anglo – Norman French,
From Latin nomen ‘Name’
– A noun is a ‘naming’ word
A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea.
– Classifications of Nouns
A – Abstract Noun –- Is usually the name of quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to ----
Which its belongs : – (An abstract noun is a word which names something that you cannot see, hear, touch, smell, or taste.
C = Common Noun
– A common noun is a general, ordinary name of a person, place, animal, thing or event.
C = Collective Noun
– A collective noun is the name of a group or collection of similar person, animals, or things.
C = Compound Noun
- Compound nouns are nouns made up of two or more words. Some compound nouns are hyphenated, some are not, and some combine their words to form a single words.
P = A proper noun is a special name of particular person, place, this or event.
M – Raw elements or objects existing in nature called material nouns
– Another classification of nouns is whether they are countable or uncountable –
– Countable – book, pen, apple, boy, doctor –
– uncountable Noun – milk, oil, gold, honesty
– The noun – gender tells us about the sex of the noun.
Late middle English --
Types of genders of Nouns
– F = Feminine gender – -------girl,spinster, queen ....
– M = Masculine gender -------
– Man, Horse, boy, Lion-----------
N = Neuter Gender (lifless objects) ---------
C = Common Gender – (either male or female but we are not concerned about it)
– Child, worker, friends, cousin, teacher –
Servant, student, candidate
A list of masculine genders –
The Noun – Number –
S =Singular – P = Plural
S – Man, boy, woman, child
P – Men, boys, women, children
–golden Rules .........
– How to form plural from singular
– Joy – Joys – chair – chairs,
Piano – pianos, Momento – Momentos, Radio, Radios,
– Glass – glasses, Hero – heroes, echo – echoes, Mango – Mangoes, Box – Boxes
Note – However, for some words ending in O, Just add – ‘s’
– Cello – cellos, disco – discos, hairdo – hairdos, logo – logos,
patio – patios, photo – photos, piano – pianos,
Note – However, for some words ending in ‘F’ just add – S
Consonant + Y, change the Y to an J and then add – es.
– A handful of nouns appear to be plural in form but take a singular verb –
– News, , Economics, mathematics, statistics- etc.
– cattle, people, vermin –
– Mr. Yadav – The Messrs Yadav, Miss Yadav – Misses Yadav , Madam – Mesdames,
Note – Some singular nouns after add – S or
Es – give different meanings –
Advice – Advices
Good – Goods
Greeting – Greetings
Order – Orders
Particular – Particulars
Regard – Regards
Ways – Ways
Number – Numbers
Powder – Powders
Exercise – 1
Find out the error part of the following sentences –
Exercise – 2
Fill in the blanks with the suitable forms of the noun given in brackets:
Exercise – 3
Change the following sentences from singular into plural.
Exercise – 4
Change the following sentences from the plural into the singular.
Exercise no – 5
Fill in the blanks with one of the two verbs given in the brackets.
From-- the word pronoun orgin from -- Pro- + nomen = noun
– From Latin Pronomen, from Pro – “in place of” + nomen “name, noun”
1520 – 30 : < middle French Pronom < Latin Pronomen (stem Pronomin)
– A word that takes the place of a noun.
To improve the impact of the sentence being delivered often the noun is replaced by a word of another part of speech. This word that is used in place of noun is called Pronoun.
Note – A Pronoun is used to replace a noun.
This noun is called the antecedent.
– The prefix “ante” means – before, So for example –
– The police officers rushed into their headquarters.
Types of Pronoun
P = Personal Pronoun –
– Personal Pronoun describes a particular person or thing or group.
[I, We, You, He, She –
P = Possessive Pronoun – Show who owns something described in a sentence –
– Mine, His, Hers, It, Ours, Yours, Their/Theirs –
– The cat is mine (Possessive Pronoun)
R = Relative Pronouns
– This kind of pronoun links one clause or phrase to another.
– It referes or relates to some noun going before, Which is called its Antecedent.
– Who, Which, That, Whoever, Whatever
– He will accept whichever project comes first.
– The contestant who gets the highest score wins the million dollar Jackpot.
R – Reciprocal Pronoun
– Since reciprocal relationship is shown in such words, it is called as reciprocal pronoun –
– Each other / one another
R = Reflexive Pronouns
– This kind of pronoun is used to refer back to the subject.
– Some of the reflexive pronouns are –
Yourself, Myself, Ourselves, Himself, Herself, itself –
– Monika forgets to send a copy of the email to herself.
I = Interrogative Pronouns –
– As the title implies, the function of this kind of pronoun is to ask questions.
– Who, What, Which, Whom, Whatever, Whichever, Whomever
I = Indefinite Pronouns
– This kind of pronoun refers to unspecified things – some examples are –
– Any, All, another, each, anyone, anything, anybody, nobody, everyone, everybody, someone, few, many, etc.
– Many were called for the interview but only five were hired.
– She’s ready to give up everything for his family’s safety.
I = Impersonal
– Use for time, weather, temperature, distance, etc –
– It is raining
– It is march
– It is morning
D = Distributive Pronoun
– A distributive pronoun considers members of a group separately, rather than collectively.
– Each, either, neither, any, none
– Each of the answer is correct.
Neither of the girls can do it.
– Each of the boys was given a present
D = Demonstrative pronouns –
– The function of this kind of pronoun is to point to a noun.
Examples are – this, these, that, those, etc.
– Anuradha Said she wanted these.
– That is the car that I’ll buy for my birthday.
E = Emphatic Pronoun (Intensive/Pronouns)
– When reflexive Pronouns are used to put emphasis on a particular noun they are called emphatic pronouns.
– He himself told me this.
– We ourselves witnessed the accident.
E = Exclamatory Pronoun
– to express an exclamation
– What / Such
– What bad weather to play football in!
Find out the error part of the following sentences:
– (Its) / her / Him / theirs
– (Its) – their / theirs / which
– she – he / her – him
– me __ myself / I –Myself, You – Myself
Fill in the blank with correct choice out of four alternatives–
– who ___ which ____ that, whom
– which, who, that, whatever
– That, what, who
Whose, which, that, whenever
– who, which, what, that
– Who, Whom, that, whose
– who, that, whom , wherever
– which, who, whom, that
– who, which, whom
– A part of speech that describes a noun or pronoun.
– The simplest definition of an adjective is that it is a word that describes or clarifies a noun.
Adjective describe nouns by giving some information about on object’s size, shape, age, color, origin or material.
Type of Adjectives
P = Possesive Adjectives
– As the name indicates, Possessive adjectives are used to indicate possession. They are -
– My, your, his, her, its, our, their -etc.
P = Proper Adjectives
– Indian, African, Chinese, Nepalese, Italian, Russian,
Q = Adjectives of quality
– These adjectives describes nouns that refer to action, state or quality.
– Careless, dangerous, excited, white, long, fat, English, cold, green. Mediterranean, three-cornered.-etc.
Q = Adjective of quantity
– – A good deal of, a lot of, plenty of, a part of, half of.
D = Demonstrative adjectives
– A demonstrative adjective shows the noun it modifies is singular or plural and whether the position of the noun is near or far from the person who is speaking or writing. A demonstrative adjectives also points out a fact about the noun.
– This / every / either / neither --etc
I = Interrogative Adjective
– Which, what, whose ....so on
N = Numeral Adjective
One, two, three, for ------
First, second, third ------
All, some, many, few, most, etc….
E = Exclamatory Adjective
– what a big building it is!
What a big fool.
E = Emphasizing Adjectives –
– He saw his beloved on the road with his own eyes.
Degrees of Comparison
Degrees of comparison refers to adjectives being written in different forms to compare one, two or more nouns which are words describing persons, places and things----------
P = Positive
– When we speak about only one person or thing we us positive degree.
– This flower is beautiful.
– she is an intelligent girl.
C = Comparative
– When we compare two persons or two things with each other, we use comparative degree –
– This house is bigger than that one.
S = Superlative
– When we compare more than two persons or thing with one another.
– This flower is the most beautiful in this garden.
Latin adjectives like----Junior, senior, inferior, superior, Posterior, prior, Anterior etc-
– Use – to – place of than –
– Dharma is junior to me ( we use to place of than because of junior)
2. – Major, exterior, interior, minor –
– Positive degree adjective.
– The most major portion (×)
– The major portion ()
3. After as/so – use positive degree
–Anu is as smart as Manu.
– Anu is as smarter as Manu (×)
4. Use positive degree after too –
– Soniya was too weak to walk.
– Neha was too weaker to walk (×)
5. Comparatively/Relatively takes positive degree –
–Anita is relatively beeter than Rama.
6. The comparative form with r’ or’ er’
In comparative degree is not sued when we compare two qualities in the same person, animal or thing.
– Mr. Dradvid is more fast than skillful.
7. Adjective word such as – chief,Golden, unique, excellent, universal, perfect, round, square, cannot be compared.
Correct use of some adjectives ----
Later, latest – to show time
– Later, last – to show position
The latter chapters of this book are interesting. The last chapter is good.
Less – quality
Fewer – numbers
Anyone – anybody
Any one – whichever
First and fore most – order, foremost – leading
A list of some adjectives
P C S
Good/well – better – the best
Bad/evil/ill – worse – the worst
Much – more – the most
Little – less/lesser – the least
Far – farther – the farthest
Up – upper – the upmost
Out – outer – the utmost
Beautiful – more beautiful – most beautiful
Famous – more famous – most famous
Honest – more honest – most honest
Tall – taller – tallest
Long – longer – longest
Fine – finer – finest
Busy – busier – busiest
Holy – holier – holiest
----------Pick out the adjectives and state their kinds.
Pick out the adjective and name the degree of comparison –
– Love is greater than any other things in the world.
– A dead monkey is not so good as a live donkey.
– Karina is not as beautiful as Karishma.
– It was the happiest time of my life.
– He congratulated Radha on her grand success.
Find out the error part of the following sentences –
An article is a limiting word not descriptive which cannot be used alone, but always joins to a substantive word to denote a particular thing or a group or any individual of a group or class.
There are two kinds of articles ------------------
Use of A:
(1) उन Nouns के साथ जिनके पहले अक्षर की ध्वनि consonant हो।
A doctor, A woman
(2) Singular countable noun के साथ
A mango, A banana
(3) जब किसी वस्तु का वर्णन First Time किया गया हो।
(4) वे शब्द जिनका उच्चारण करते समय ‘u’ की ध्वनि लम्बी हो।
A university, A uniform, A useful book etc.
(5) ‘One’ शब्द से पहले -A one way, a one year course etc.
Use of An:
उन Nouns से पहले जिनका उच्चारण करते समय प्रारम्भिक ध्वनि हिन्दी ‘स्वर’ (अ, आ, इ, ई) हो तो article ‘An’ का प्रयोग किया जाता हैं।
Eg. – An apple, An hour, An honest etc.
Note: पूरी जाति का बोध कराने के लिये Singular countable noun के पहले Articles a/an का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
Exclamation में What के बाद Singular Countable के साथ Article a/an का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
(1) Range of mountains (पर्वत श्रेणी) के नामो के पहले Article ‘The’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
The Himalayas The Alps etc.
Note: Peak (चोटी), Mountains एक वचन में हैं तो उनके नाम के पहले ‘The’ का प्रयोग नहीं होता हैं।
Eg. –Mount Everest, Mount Abu etc.
(2) Group of islands (द्वीप समूह) के नामो से पहले
The East Indies, The Andamans etc.
Note: वे द्वीप जो एकवचन रूप में होते है, उनके नामों से पहले The का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।
Sumatra, Sicily ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;
(3) Heavenly Bodies (आकाशीय पिण्ड), Directions (दिशा), Wonders of world etc के साथ Article ‘The’ का प्रयोग किया जाता है।
Eg. –The earth, The moon, The air etc.
(4) Whole class (सम्पूर्ण वर्ग) के लिये use आने वाले Singular nouns से पहले
Eg. –The man is Mortal
(5) Magazines, Newspapers, Religious books के नाम से पहले
Eg. –The Geeta, The Hindustan Times etc.
(6) Ordinal number से पहले
Eg. –I got the first prize in the dance competition
Nore: Roman number के साथ न तो The लगता है और ना ही st/nd लगाया जाता हैं।
(7) High ranks के नामों से पहले
The principal, The headmaster ,The president etc...................
(8) Proper noun से पहले जो Common Nouns की तरह use होते हैं।
Eg. –Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India
(9) Superlative degree से पहले
(10) Musical instruments से पहले
The Guitar, The Tabla
(11) Gulf/ Canals / Ocean / Waterfall के नाम से पहले
The Bay of Bengal
(12) Political Parties के नामों से पहले
Eg. –The B.J.P., The A.B.V.P., The N.S.U.I etc.
(13) Data denoting words/ dates of months से पहले
The 5th of May
(14) Historical buildings, Events, Places से पहले
Eg. –The Red Fort .
(15) Comparative degree में than ना हो या वाक्य में contrast (विरोध) का बोध हो।
Eg. –Radha is the longest of the two.
(16) Armed forces / Govt. Departments के नामों से पहले
The Airforce, The Legislative etc.
(17) The को whole व some के बाद तथा both व all के बाद use किया जाता हैं।
Omission of Articles
(1) Language के नाम से पहले Article का use नहीं किया जाता है।
Eg. – He can not speak the English --- He can not speak English.
(2) Festival व Name of seasons से पहले।
(3) Sports के नामों से पहले
(4) Possessive Adjectives के साथ Articles का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।
(5) School, College, Hospital, Prison, etc का प्रयोग मौलिक उद्देश्यों के लिये हो तो Article का use नहीं होता है।
(6) Name of days, Names of months के साथ Article का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता है।
(7) Name of diseases के साथ Articles का प्रयोग नहीं किया जाता हैं।
Note: कुछ बीमारियों के साथ The Article का use किया जाता है - The gout, The Plague etc.
(8) Proper noun के साथ Article का use नहीं किया जाता है।
A Conjunction is a word which joins two or more than two words. Phrases, Clauses or sentences.
How to use conjunction ?
Eg., - Scarcely had he gone out of the office when it began rain.
Eg. – They have no other choice than to write a letter
Eg.- I don’t care whether they sing or dance.
Eg. – I want nothing else but to sing a song.
Note : यदि वाक्य में Cause, Result का बोध हो तो such के बाद that का use किया जाता है।
Both Gulabdevi and Prabhatilal are hardworker
Although he is poor yet he is an honest man.
An Interjection is a word or group of words the expresses some sudden feeling or emotion at the mind. These words are also known as exclamatory words.
Jaipur is the capital of …er.. Raj.
Shall we write ? ‘uh-huh’
Hil, What’s new?
Oh!, What! Ha!
Oh!, You are here
Bravo!, You have done well
Hello!, Ho!, Hey!
Hey !, What are you doing
Hush!, Sh… !
Sh..! Stop Talking
Latin Old French
Tempus Tens Tense
Time (middle English)
Present Past Future
Indefinite / Simple
Present Simple Tense
Singular verb -Shyam writes a poem.
.( plural subject) --Sub + vI+ob+ow –
- They sing a song.
Don’t / doesn’t
Do – with Plural Subject
Does – with Singular Subject
Formula------Sub + do/does + not + vI + ob
Affirmative – He speaks English.
Negative – He does not Speak English.
N- They do not write a letter
N - We do not sing a song.
To make a question in English in present simple we normally use Do/does. It is normally put at the beginning of the question.
Interrogative – Negative –
Normally use Do/does
H.v – Do/does
Negative – Not
Formula – Do/does + sub + not + vI + ob - ?
Complete the sentences by using right verbs
Is - with singular
Are - with plural
Am – with ‘I’
Neg :- Use – not with H.v. – is/are/am
H.v. + Sub + vI + ing + ob - ?
- Are you doing homework?
- Is she teaching English?
- Am I taking milk?
Interrogative – Negative
Neha loves this chocolate ice-cream. (✓)
(See, hear, smell, notice, recognize, taste, appear, seem, look, love, hate, abhor, despise, detest, like, dislike, hope, lake, sound etc.)
When is his new book appearing?
For Past events with a connection to the present with words of unfinished time-
(Has – with singular
Have – with plural)
Sub + has/have + vIII + ob-
Neg – Sub+has/have+not+vIII+ob+
Interrogative – Has/have+ Sub+ Past participle + ob -?
Interco – neg.
H.v.+Sub+not+vIII+ob - ?
- Have you not played tennis?
- Have you got a prize?
- Has she cut onions?
Directions – Complete each sentence with the correct form of the verb in the present perfect.
I – in this country all my life. (Live)
She – her homework. (Do)
It – the entire week. (Rain)
Akshay knows everyone in her town because he these since he was a baby (live)
Me – a movie in a very long time (not see)
You – any breakfast yet either. (Not have)
If – in almost four weeks and the grounds is too dry. (Rain)
Present Perfect Continuous
H.v. – Has/have+been
M.v. – base+ing (vI ing)
For time use preposition – Since/for
Since – to indicate point of the time.
For – before the period of the time.
Negative – we use Not with helping verb ....
Interrogative –formula -h.v.+sub+been+v1ing+ob+since/for+T ?
Interrogative – neg.
Choose the correct answer –
Negative – H.v. = did+not
m.v. = base form (v I)
- m.v – base form (v I)
- Suman did not take tea.
Interrogative – Did+Sub+v I+ob - ?
Did Mamta love you?
Did they ----?
Did She ---?
Interrogative – Neg. – Did+Sub+not+v I+ ob - ?
Did you not read a book?
Did she - ?
Did he - ?
Did we - ?
Was = with singular
Were = with plural
m.v. – Base verb + ing / v I ing
Formula – Sub+was/were+v I ing + ob-
Negative – Sub+Was/were+ not + v I ing+ ob-
Interrogative – H.v.+ Sub+ v Iing+ ob - ?
Interrogative – negative –
M.v. – v III
(Had) + past participle - then another activity
First a completed activity
Just is used with the past perfect to refer to an event that was only a short time earlier than before now, e:g –
Past Perfect Continuous
H.v. – Had + been (some for all subjects)
M.V. – v I + ing
For tine – Since (point of the time)/ for – period of the time.
Formula – Sub+ had + been+ v I + ing + ob +since/for + time.
Interrogative – Had his elder sister been dancing for two hours ?
Adverb of time – tomorrow, next day/ week/ month/ year
H.V.- Shall / will
m.v. – Base form (v I)
- Formula – Sub+shall/will+ v I+ ob-
- They will buy a computer tomorrow.
Neg. – He will not send me a letter.
Interrogative – Will Aishwarya give you a pen tomorrow?
Will you _________?
Will She __________?
Will he ___________?
Interrogative- negative – Will you not come have?
A - He will be waiting for me.
N – You will not be waiting for me.
Interro. – Will you be feeling well tomorrow?
Interro- Neg. – Will you not be shifting to a new home next year ?
Neg - you will not have met Akshay.
Will you have taken milk?
Will she have _______?
Will he have ________?
Interrogative – Negative –
Future perfect continuous
Neg. - She will not have been studying since 2018.
Interrogative – Will she have been studying since 2019?
Interrogative – Neg. – Will she not have been studying since 2018?
It is (A) raining (B) for two days (C) No error (D).
I (A) have seen (B) him yesterday(C). No error (D).
I (A) had written (B) to him last week (C). No error (D).
Word – definitions
Accede – to agree or allow
Exceed – to go beyond to surpass
Accept – to take willingly
Except – excluding
Adapt – to adjust
Adept – skilled
Adopt – accept as your own
Adverse – unfavorable
Averse – unwilling or repelled
Advice (N) – an opinion given with the intention of help
Advise (V) – to give counsel or advice
Affect – to influence
Effect – to cause
Aid – help or assistance given
Aide – a person who helps
All right – everything is righ
Alright – ok
Allways – by every means / method
Always – forever
Allude – to suggest indirectly
Elude – to dodge or escape
Allusion – hint
Illusion – a wild idea, mirage
Almost – nearly all
Most – highest
Aloud – speaking loudly
Allowed – having permission
Already (Adv.) – action is completed by a certain time
All ready – everything is completely prepared
Alternately – taking turns
Alternatively – an option
Amused – something is entertaining
Bemused – bewidrered or lost in though
Annual – yearly
Annul – invalid, to make void
Any one – any one person
Anyone – anybody, any person at all
Apart – in pieces
A part – one section of
Ascent – upward movement
Assent – to agree
Ascetic – a person who renounces all material comforts
Aesthetic – pleasing qualities of something
Assure – to guarantee
Ensure – to make sure by double checking
Insure – to provide insurance
Baited – to traps
Bated – reduced
Biannual – twice in one year
Biennial – every two years
Bimonthly – every two months
Semimonthly – twice a month (biweekly)
Blithe – light erred
Lithe – grace ful
Bore – boring
Boar – a male pig
Boor – vulgar person
Born – newly coming into life
Borne – carried
Canvas – cloth or fabric
Canvass – examine thoroughly
Cite – to quote or mention
Site – a place
Sight – view
Coarse – rough
Course – series of lectures on one subject.
Collaborate – to work together
Corroborate – to support with evidence
Complement – to supplement
Compliment – to praise
Conform – to be similar
Confirm – to make sure
Cannote – imply or suggest
Denote – indicate specifically
Conscience – feeling or knowledge of right and wrong
Conscious – being awake and aware
Credible – reliable
Creditable – worthy of praise of respect
Desert – to abandon
Dessert – sweet course of a meal
Divers – several
Diverse – different or varied
Discreet – modest and prudent
Discrete – separate or distinct
Emigrate – to leave one’s country
Immigrate – to settle in another country
Eminent – prestigious, outstanding
Emanant – issuing forth
Imminent – close to happening or near
Entomology – study of insects
Entymology – study of the history words and where they come from
Explicit – clear and direct
Implicit – indirectly
Farther – do with distance
Further – additional or more
Faze – distress or disturb
Phase – a period of time in a cycle of events
Forth – forward
Fourth – indicates an object that comes between no.3
Foul – offensive, rotten
Fowl – refers to birds
Hail – to greet or to come from
Hale – sound or healthy
Heroin – an illicit drugs
Heroine – female hero
Hoard – to collect and keep for oneself
Horde – a large group
Latent – present but not visible or active
Patent – visible, active
Later – after ward
Latter – lost of two things mentioned
Mantel – shelf above a fire place
Mantle – a clock or blanket
Marital – refers to marriage
Martial – refers to war or warriors
Marshal – office of highest ranking
Marshall – to together
Meet – to get together
Mete – to distribute
Meat – flesh that may be eaten
Noisome – disgusting, offensive, harmful
Noisy – making a lot of sound
Peek – to look quickly
Pique – to arouse or provoke
Peak – highest point of something
Peer – gaze strongly
Pier – an equal
Plain – simple
Plane – flat and level surface
Precede – to come or go before
Proceed – to move forward
Premise – assumption
Premises – hose or building and the ground around it.
Profligate – wasteful or extravagant
Prolific – fruitful, producing much
Quiet – without sound or mention of
Quite – completely or somewhat
Rain – water that falls from the sky
Reign – rule of a king or queen
Rein – straps of leather used to control and guid a horse
Raise – to build or grow
Raze – to destroy
Regimen – a systematic plan
Regiment – troop of soldiers
Residence – where people live
Residents – people who live there
Respectfully – politely and with respect
Respectively – refers to the order in which things are given
Restive – impatient and nervous, restless
Restful – full of rest, clam, quiet
Retch – to try and vomit
Wretch – miserable or wicked person
Right – correct
Rite – a ceremony
Write – to express oneself in writing
Role – a part in a play or movie
Roll – to turn over and over
Stationary – still and unmoving
Stationery – writing materials such as paper
Statue – carved or shaped imitation of an object
Statute – law
Stature – status, standing
Storey – a floor of a building
Story – a tale
Straight – no bends or curve
Strait – a narrow channel connecting two bodies of water
Tenant – someone who rents property
Tenet – a principle
Throes – difficult times
Throws – plural or present tense of throw
Torpid – lacking alertness
Turgid – very ornate and decorative
Tortuous – winding, crooked
Torturous – very painful
Sanguine – red, ruddy or optimistic
Saturnine – being moody, sullen or melancholy
Scene – a place or view
Seen – past tense of see
Seam – where two pieces are joined
Seem – to appear or look
Sensual – physical, especially sexual, pleasure
Sensuous – appetitive
Serf – salve / servant
Surf – to ride the waves of water
Sever – to cut through completely
Severe – strict, hard, extreme
Shear – to cut off
Sheer – pure
Shore – beach
Sure – without doubt
Singly – one by one
Singularly – extraordinarily
Sole – single
Soul – spirit of a living creature
Vane – blade that rotates
Vain – fruitless, hope less
Vein – tubes that carry blood back to the heart
Venal – money – grubbing
Venial – easily forgiven
Vicious – cruel and mean
Viscous – thick and sticky
Waist – human body between the hips and ribs
Waste – to use carelessly
Wary – leery and cautions
Weary – tired and worn
Wave – move back and forth
Waive – to give up, not require or ask for
Wet – full of moisture
Whet – arouse
– She gets on really well with the people at work
– I will take on a lot of extra hours this week, I need the money.
– Raj has really built on his excellent work in this department.
– I’m trying to decide on what type of cake I want for the birthday.
– Please hold on, the manger isn’t ready to see you yet.
– Could I try on this dress in a size eleven please ?
– Go after – try to achieve something.
– Shyam yadav went after his dreams and now he is a published writer.
Put on – to dress oneself
Put in – to interrupt a conversation
Put up – to give food and accommodation
Put down – to insult
Put away – to clean, to store
Work out – do physical exercise
Pass out – faint, lose consciousness
Fill out – complete a form
Break out – start suddenly
Eat out – eat in a restaurant
Pick out – choose from a group
Make out – manage to see or hear
– Get out of – to avoid something you don’t want to do.
– Get rid of – to throw away something.
– Get across – to make someone understand
– Get along with – to have a good relationship.
– Get around – to avoid a difficult situation.
– Get off lightly – to experience less trouble than expected.
– Get away from – to escape
– Get at – to criticize someone repeatedly
– Get through to – to successfully explain something
– Get down – to cause someone to feel sad/depressed
– Call after – to give a child the same name as someone else.
– Call around – to go to someone’s house to visit them.
– I called around on Sunday but you weren’t there.
– Call away – to ask someone to go somewhere else.
– I am afraid the doctor was called away on an emergency earlier today, but he should be back soon.
– Call back – to return a phone call or to phone someone again.
– Sheela is on another call at the moment, but I will get her to call you back.
– Call for – publicly demand that something be done.
– The protesters were calling for the resignation of the prime minister.
– Call forth – to elicit a reaction.
– Call in – to phone, to visit someone.
– Call off – to cancel an organized event.
– Akshay Called of the birthday party of the very last minute!
– Call on – to visit someone / to demand or request that someone do something.
– The supporters of the opposition called on the government to call a new election.
– Call up –
– to phone somebody –
– Look after – to take care of someone or something.
– I need to find someone who can look after my dogs this weekend while I’m on holiday.
– Look ahead –
To think about and plan the future.
Let’s look ahead to next month’s projected sales figures.
– Look around / round –
Do they want to have a look around/round town this evening.
– Look at – To consider or examine something –
– We will have to look at all the proposals before coming to any decision.
Ask out – invite on a date
– Radha asked Shyam out to dinner.
– Ask around – ask many people the same question.
– I asked around but nobody has seen my belt.
– Add up to – equal
Your purchases add up to $101.11.
break down – stop functioning (vehicle/machine)
– Their car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm.
Break down – get upset
– The woman broke down when the police told that her son had injured.
Break in – force entry to a building
– Somebody broke in last night and store Jewellers.
– Back up –
2. If you back up a claim or story, you supply evidence to prove it is true.
3. In computer – back up a tile/programme
Means – to make a copy of it.
Black out – lose consciousness or memory temporarily
– Sanjana did not remember what happened after the accident, he had blacked out.
Break up – end a relationship
– My girlfriend and I broke up before I moved to Condon.
Break out – escape
– The Prisioner broke out of Jail when the guards weren’t looking.
Break out in – develop a skin develop.
Bring up – raise a child.
– He was brought up by his grandparents.
Bring up – Start talking about a subject.
– My sister walks out of the room when my brother brings up sports.
– Bring forth – to produce
– Trees bring forth fruit.
– A women brings forth a baby.
– Do away with – discard
– It’s time to do away with all of these old tax records.
Do up – fasten, close –
– Do your umbrella Up before you go outside. It’s raining!
Dress up – wear nice clothing.
– It’s a fancy restaurant.So we have to dress up.
Drop back – move back in a position / group.
– Andura dropped back to third Place when she fell off his bike.
Drop in / by / over – Come without an appointment.
– I might drop in / by / over for coffee this week.
– Cut up – Destroy completely.
Fall apart – break into pieces
– Her new shirt fell apart in the washing machine.
Fall out – Became loose and unattached.
– His hair started to fall out when he was twenty five.
Figure out – understand, find the answer.
– I need to figure out how to fit the piano and bookshelf in this room.
Get across / get over – Communicate, make understandable.
– I tried to get my point across/over to the Judge but he wouldn’t listen.
– Hand down – (give stng used to sby else)
– I handed my book down to my cousin.
Hand in –submit
– They have to hand in their project by Monday.
– Hang in – Stay positive (informal) hang in there, I’m sure you’ll win a lotter soon.
Hang on – wait a short time.
– Hang on while I grab my coat.
Hold back – hide an emotion.
Hold up – rob –
A man in a black mask held the bank up this morning.
– Keep on doing – continue doing.
Keep up –continue at the same rate.
– If you keep those results up you will get into a great college.
Make up – apply cosmetics to / forgive each – other.
– We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast.
– Mix up – confuse two or more things.
Pass out – give the same thing to many people.
– The professor passed the text books out before class.
Pass up – decline
– I passed up the job because I am afraid of change.
Pay back – return owed money
– Thanks for buying my ticket, I’ll pay you back on Sunday.
Pick out – choose
– I picked out two shirts for you to try on.
Put down – put what you are holding on a surface or floor.
Put down – insult/make sby feel stupid.
– The student put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short.
Put off – postpone
Put out – extinguish
– The put the fire out before the fireman arrived.
Put together – assemble
Put up with –tolerate
Put on – put clothing / accessories on your body
Run into – meet unexpectedly
– I ran into Aishwarya at the mall.
Run over – drive a vehicle over a person or thing.
Run over / through – review
– Let’s run over / through these lines one more time before the show.
Run away – leave unexpectedly, escape
Run out – have none left
We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap.
Send back – return (usually by mail)
– Set up – arrange, organize,
– Set up – trick / trap
– Ajay set a meeting up with CEO of the company.
Shop around – compare prices.
– I want to shop around a little before I decide on these cameras.
Show off – act extra special for people watching.
Sort out – organize, resolve a problem.
– we need to sort the bills out before the first of the month.
Switch off – stop the energy flow, turn off.
Switch on – star the energy flow, turn on.
We heard the interview – as soon as we switched on the radio.
Take after – resemble a family member
– Take back – return an iteam.
– Take off – start to fly.
Take off – remove stng (usually clothing)
Take out – Pay for sby to go somewhere with you.
Tear up – rip into pieces
Think back – remember
Think over – consider
Throw away – dispose of
– We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.
Turn down – decrease the volume strength
Turn down – refuse
– Please turn the TV down.
Turn off – switch off
Turn on – switch on
Turn up – increase the volume
Turn up – appear suddenly
Try on – sample clothing
Try out – test
Use up – finish the supply
Wake up – stop sleeping.
Wear off – fade away
Work out – be successful
Work out – make a calculation
We have to work out the total the total cost before the buy the house.
Preposition is the word that show the relationship between a noun or a pronoun and some other word or element in the rest of the sentence.
A preposition is a word used before a noun or pronoun to show its relation with the other words of the sentence.
At – (A) name of smaller place.
– Anu lives at –
B. Before the Time of clock –
– Karishma came at 8 o’clock
C In the sense of Temporary action –
– Aman is at work
D. To show age or stage –
– I left college at twenty.
E Before Noon and night
– At noon at night
Also use with – at down, at dusk,
At midnight, at day break, at twilight
F. The words which show price, rate or speed –
– Milk sells at Rs. 45/- a litre.
– He rides motorbike at 90km/hour.
G.Also Use with following words –
– At this time, at this moment, at this hour,
– At page 342, At a match, at the bottom,
– At a lecture, At college, At home, At the top etc.
In – Bigger places –
– I live in India
– With following phrases –
– In the morning, In the evening.
– In the afternoon, – In the night
– My brother is in the Army.
– In January , In February, In March so on----
– In 1897
– In 1947
– In 1986
– In 2015
–– In spring, In summer, In winter,
In autumn –
– In the Victorian age –
– In the eighteenth century –
– Before – A/An + Car / taxi / Jeep
– Sheela goes to college in a car.
Sheela goes to college by a car
Into – Motion inside anything.
– Raj Jumped into the river.
– In the sense to change one medium to another.
(Milk turns into curd water turns into ice Translate into Hindi)
On – In the sense of touching any object –
– There is a book on the table.
. Before the name of week’s days –
On Monday, on Sunday –
Also use with –
On Sunday/Monday evening
On the morning of the event
On the evening of the 31st December
– So on –
Use with – A/An/the + bus / train / aeroplane / ship –
– She was on a bus / a ship / a plane –
– With – Possessive Adjective + cycle / scooter / motorcycle –
– Rajan goes to school on his scooter
== Also use with –
Foot, a horse / horse’s back .
– He walks on foot
If you want to go--- bus, you have------ go the bus stop .
When you arrive _____ your destination---------you the bus.
Sometimes you even have to change buses ___ another bus stop.
I have been waiting ______ 6 o’clock.
She has not eaten anything ______ breakfast.
She got these photos ______ my friend Amit.
______ these pictures you can see a giraffe.
Nikhil was born ______ the 31st December-- 1970.
Modern mass production ______ case was developed ______ him _____ 1913.
Munih lies 530 meters ______ Sea level .
There is a bridge ______ the river.
Note – When we say next, last, this, every – we do not use – at, in, on –
– She went to Jaipur last May (Not in last may)
– I go home every Deepawali (not at every Deepawali)
Of = (A) used for belonging to, relating to, or connected with :-
– The high light of the show is at the end
– I always dreamed of being rich and famous.
(B) Used to indicate reference :-
– This is a picture of my girlfriend
– I took two cup of tea.
(A) Used to indicate the place, person or thing that someone or something moves toward, or the direction of something.
– The package was mailed to Mr. Yogesh Yesterday.
– Please send it back to Aishwarya.
(B) Used to indicate a limit or an ending point :
– The snow was piled up to the roof –
– The stock Price rose up to 95 dollars.
(C) Used to indicate relationship –
– My answer to your question is in this envelope.
(D) Used to indicate a time or a period:
– I work Monday to Saturdauy
– It is now 9 to 5.30
A) Used to indicate the use of something.
– I baked a cake for your birthday.
– For this reason, I’ve decided to go Jaipur.
Used to indicate time or duration.
– Shyam yadav has been famous for many decades.
– This is all I have for today.
‘Beside’ and ‘Besides’
– Beside (by the side of / outside)
– Go and sit beside your grandfather.
– Besides – in addition to
– Besided Raj, all of the boys were present in the seminar.
Over –In the sense of all over
– English is spoken all over the world
– In the sense of more than –
– Mr. Shyam is over twenty –
– His income is not over his expenses –
-In the sense of to be over –
(D) – In excess –
– She overworks in the company.
Point of the time period of the time
Anita has been working here since 2010.
– She has been working here since two days.
– A lottery was won by Neha.
(B) In the sense of edge or near –
My village is by the river. ()
My village is beside the river.*
(C) – Use before the --
– Rate, weight, measurement, expressing words etc.
– Mangoes are sold by the kilo.
– This room is 13th by 9ft.
– Silver is sold by the gram.
Through – (B) – by means of –
– He knew it through a flyer.
– From one side to the other
– Can you see through glass?
– From beginning to the end
– She got bored and could not sit through the night.
= From in the sense of separation
– The fruits have fallen from the tree.
= for Time –
– I attended the meeting from morning to evening.
= Sense of cause –
– Suresh is suffering from fever.
= Chemical changes –
– Curd is made from milk –